Ido-English Dictionary : V

vab-o: honey-comb. Def.: Konstrukturo ek vaxo, quan la abeli facas en la abeluyo IV-398. — D

vacil-ar: (intr.) to vacillate: be unsteady, waver, reel, stagger; to fluctuate, waver in mind or opinion; (of light) to flicker; (in speaking) to falter; -(ad)o: vacillation; -ar sur la gambi: to shake in or be unsteady on the legs. Ex.: La tablo vacilas. Ta homo havis vacilanta marcho (-maniero). Lumo qua vacilas. — EFIS

vacin-o: (disease) cow-pox; -serumo: vaccine (matter); -izar: to vaccinate (ulu); -iz(ad)o: vaccination; -ifar: to produce cow-pox. — EFIR

vacini-o: (bot.) red whortleberry (or billberry), cowberry (Vaccinium). — L

(tra-) vad-ar: (tr.) to ford, wade across (a river, etc.); -eyo: ford; -ebla: fordable. — EIS

«vade-mecum»: vade mecum.

vafl-o: waffle: thin cake; -muld-ilo: w. iron. — DeR

vag-ar: (intr.) to wander, rove about, stroll, stray, straggle; -ado: roaming, vagrancy; -ema; -em-acho: vagrant, vagabond; -anta mendikero: strolling beggar; -anta mento: (fig.) wandering mind. — DEFIS

vagin-o: (anat.) vagina. — DEFS

vagon-o: railway-carriage, car; -o un-esma-klasa: first class c.; lit-, dormo- -o: sleeper; restor- -o: dining-car. — DEFRS

vajis-ar: (intr., of infants) to wail, cry. V. exp.: La specala krio di nove naskinta o yuna infanto; IV-578. — FIS

vak-ar: (intr.) to be vacant; -o: vacancy; -anta: vacant. Ex.: La trono, la ofico vakas. Vakigar la trono, lo ofico. Vakanta apartamento, episkopeso. — DEFIRS

vakanc-ar: (intr.) to have a (or, be on a) vacation, holiday; -dio: a day's holiday. Ex.: Pasar la vakanco en la ruro. Ni vakancas dufoye dum la yaro: la paskala e la somerala vakanco. — DEFIRS

vaku-a: empty, void, blank, vacuous (de); -o: vacuum, blank; -eso: vacuity, emptiness; -ajo: gap, chasm, hole; -igar: to empty, vacate; to draw (poultry), to gut (fish); to drain (a ditch, etc.); -eskar: to become empty; -ifar: to make a void, produce a vacuum (as by air-pump); -a chambro, stomako, spaco: empty room, stomach, space; -a muro: blank wall; -a tempo: unoccupied time; aer- -o: air-vacuum, -hole; latrin- -igo: emptying of cess-pools or water-closets; -igar botelo: to empty a bottle; la botelo vaku-eskas lente: the bottle becomes slowly empty. Ant.: plena. — DEFIS

vakuol-o: (biol.) vacuole. — DEFIS

vakuometr-o: vacuum gauge. — DEFIRS

val-o: vale, valley, dale (cf. ad-vale); -eto: small valley, dell; tra monti e vali: up hill and down dale; -o lakrim-oza: (fig.) vale of tears. — EFIS

valenco: (chem.) valence.

valenc-a: (chem.) having valence; -eso: valence.

valerian-o: (bot.) valerian (genus: Valerians); -acido: valer(ian) acid. — EFIRS

valerianel-o: (bot.) valerianella, corn-salad, lamb's lettuce (Valerianella olitoria). — EFL

valid-a: (jur.) valid: having legal force, good; -eso: validity; healthfulness; -igar: to validate; -a mariajo: a legal marriage; ne- -igar: to invalidate. — DEFIS

valiz-o: valise, portmanteau, suitcase. — EFIS

valor-ar: (intr.) to be worth, be equal to in value, be as good as; be fit, be useful or good (for something); (of laws) to be in force; -igar: to make (ulo) of worth, of value, make useful for; -o: value, worth; -anta: worth; -oza: valuable; -ajo: valuable object; -paperi: (com.) valuable papers: stocks, securities, etc.; -igar lego: to put a law in force; sen- -igar: to deprive (ulo) of value, to demonetize (money); sen- -a: valueless; min- -igar, -eskar: to depreciate; pen- -ar: to be worth the trouble, be worth while; plu- -o: superior, increased value; min- -o: less, inferior value; ica stofo valoras kin franki po metro: this fabric is worth five francs a meter; to valoras nulo: that is good for, worth nothing; -ar sua pezo de oro: to be worth its weight in gold; quante co valoras: how much is this worth; ica medikamento valoras kontre febro: this medicine is good for fever; ica plumo neplus valoras por skribar: this pen is no longer fit to write with; to valoras la peno (od, pen-valoras) askoltar: that worth listening to; -igar sua talento: to turn one's talent to account. — EFIS

vals-ar: (intr.), -igar: (tr.) to waltz. — DEFIRS

valv-o: (tech., zool., bot.) valve. — EFIS

vampir-o: (also fig.) vampire. — DEFIRS

vams-o: doublet, jerkin. — D

van-a: vain: fruitless, ineffectual (cf. vanitat-oza, frivola); -e: in vain, to no purpose; no use! -eso: vanity (N.B. not of person), emptiness, vainness (of a project, etc.); -igar: to thwart, baffle, foil; -ajo: a v. act, wish. Def.: Sen-efikiva; sen-rezulta; sen reala fundmaneto. Ex.: Vana esforci, esperi. Vaneso di homala grandaji. Vaneso di la vanaji, omno esas vanajo. — EFIS

vanad-o: (chem.) vanadium.

vandal-a, -(ul)o: vandal; -eso, -ajo: (spirit, act) vandalism. — DEFIRS

vanel-o: (orni.) lapwing, peewit, plover (genus: Vanellus). — FIL

vang-o: (anat. and fig.) cheek; -oza: chubby: full cheeked; -egi, -o-sako: jowls; cheek-pouch (of certain monkeys); -o-barbo: whisker(s); -o-frapar, -batar: to slap, cuff, strike (ulu) on the face. — D

vanil-o: vanilla; -iero: v. plant (genus: Vanilla). — DEFIRS

vanitat-o: vanity, self-conceit; -oza, -oz(ul)o: self-admiring, vain (person). Ex.: Lua vanitato esas netolerabla. V. exp.: vid. superba. Ant.: modest-eso. — EFIS

vant-o, -i: (nav.) shroud(s); -i granda: main s. — DR

vapor-o: steam (from boiling water); vapor (from liquids or fluid floating in the atmosphere); (of wine) fume (affecting the head); -oza, -atra: vapor-ous, ish; -igar: to vaporize, volatalize; -eskar: to evaporate; turn into vapor; -ig-ilo: evaporating machine; -agar: (tr.) to steam (ulo), give a steam bath to; -balno: vapor-, steam-bath; -mashino: steam engine; -navo: steam boat; incens- -o: cloud of incense; arseno- -i: fumes of arsenic. — EFIS

var-o, -i: ware(s), commodit-y, -ies; merchandize (cf. komerc-ajo). Def.: Kozo vendebla, granda o mikra; II-76. — DE

varang-o: (nav.) floor-timber (of a ship). — DFS

vari-(ad)ar: (tr., intr.) to vary, change (cf. chanjar, divers-igar); -igar: to cause (ulo) to vary; -anta, -iva, -ebla, -ema: variable, versatile, unsteady, fickle, flighty; -anto: a variant (reading, interpretation, spelling. etc.); -ebl-eso; -em-eso: variableness; variability; versatility; -ar la frazo: to say the same things in other words. Ex.: Mori varias segun la nacioni. La vetero varias perpetue. V. exp.: Chanjar ne esas exakta sinonimo di variar: variar esas chanjar segun quanteso od inteseso; III-103. — DEFIS

varicel-o: (med.) varicella: chicken-pox. — DEFIS

varietat-o: (zool., bot.) variety. — DEFIS

varik-o: (med.) varix: varicose vein. — EFIS

variol-o: (med.) variola: smallpox; -ala: variolous: relating to v.; -iko, -ika: (person) suffering from v.; -mark-iz-ita: pock-marked. — EFIS

varm-a: (also fig.) warm; -ega: hot; -eta: tepid, lukewarm; -eskar: to get warm; -igar: to heat, warm; -ig-(ad)o: heating; -ig-ilo: heating apparatus; ped-, lit-, plad-varm-ig-ilo: foot-, bed-, plate-warmer. Ant.: kolda. — DE

vars-ar: (tr.) to pour (out) (as liquids); to spill (accidentally); shed (blood); to empty (solid things); -ero: (astron.) Aquarius. V. exp.: vid. rakar. — FI

vart-ar: (tr.) to await, wait for (ulu, ulo); -igar: to keep (ulu) waiting; -anta: waiting, expectant; -ante: while waiting, in the interim (cf. dume); -eyo: waiting-place, -room. Def.: Restar en la ula loko o stando, til ke ulo eventas; III-423. Ex.: Me vartas nepaciente la decido. V. exp.: vid. expektar. — DE

vasal-a, -(ul)o: vassal; -eso: vassalage. — DEFIRS

vask-o: basin (as of a fountain). — FI

vaskul-o: (anat., biol.) blood vessel, tube, canal; -ala, -oza: vascular; -aro: vascular system. — DEFIS

vast-a: vast, extensive (in all directions); -eso: vastness, vast extent, spaciousness; plu-vast-igar: to spread (ulo), to make more extensive. Def.: Granda segun omna sua dimensioni; III-42. Ex.: Vasta agro esas agro same longa e larja; vasta salono esas salono same proporcione longa, larja ed alta. Figurale, on pluvastigas ula ideo od opiniono (donar ad ol plu granda areo). Vasta eruditeso. — EFIS

vat-o: wadding, padding: soft stuff of loose texture; prepared sheets of carded cotton (as used to thicken dresses, quilts, etc.); -izar: to wad, pad, stuff (with wadding). — DFIR

vax-o: wax (of any kind, nat. or artific.); -izar: to (smear, rub with) wax; -o-telo: oil-cloth; siglo- -o: sealing w.; modlo- -o: modeling w.; parquet- -o: floor w. — DE

vaz-o: vessel (for holding liquids); vase (as for flowers, etc.); -aro arjenta: silver service; stana -o: tin-pot, -vessel. — DEFIRS

vazelin-o: vaseline. — DEFIRS

(ho) ve: alas! oh dear!

vech-o: (bot.) vetch (genus: Vicia). — EFI

vedet-o: vedette: (mounted) sentinel; -batelo: scout-boat. — DEFI

vegr-o: (nav.) plank (for ceiling). — DFS

veh-ar: (intr.) to go about in any sort of vehicle: ride, drive, sail; -igar: to convey, carry, cart, transport (in a vehicle); -(ad)o: riding, driving, sailing; -ilo: vehicle: any means of transport by land, air or water; (fig.) any means of transmitting; (med.) excipient; menstruum; aero esas -ilo di sono: air is v. of sound; imprim-arto esas -ilo por instrukto: the art of printing is a v. of instruction. — EFL

vein-o: (anat., also of marble, wood) vein; (geol., min.) vein, seam; -ala: venous: relating to v.s; -iz-ita: marked with v.s; -aro: venous system; -izar: to v.: mark wit v.s; -o-seko: phlebotomy. — EFIRS

vejet-(ad)ar: (intr.) to vegetate: grow as or like a plant; (fig.) to lead a dull life; -(ad)o: vegetating; -ala: vegetable; -anta: (of persons) vegetating; -iva: vegetative; -ant-aro: vegetation; -anto, -ivo: vegetable, plant (cf. legumo). — DEFIRS

vejetar-ar: (intr.) to be a vegetarian; -o, -ismo: vegetarianism; -anto, -ano: vegetarian. — DEFIRS

vek-ar: (intr., also fig.) to awaken, wake up; -igar: to wake, rouse (ulu); -o, -igo: awakening; -ig-ilo: alarm. — DE

vekt-o: beam (of scales); tiro- -o: swingle-tree, -bar (of a carriage). — L

vektor-o: (geom.) vector.

vel-o: veil; a piece of stuff used to conceal something; (fig.) cover, screen, shade; -eto: small v.; lady's v.; -ego: awning; -izar: to veil; cover, hide; -o gaza: gauze v.; nubo- -o: v. of clouds; palat- -o: (anat.) velum. Ex.: Eskartar, levar la vel(et)o de la vizajo. La velo di la templo. La veli (E. shades) di la nokto. La nubi velizas la suno. — EFIS

velin-o: vellum; -papero: v. paper. — DEFIR

velit-o: (Rom. antiq.) velite: a light-armed soldier.

velk-ar: (intr.) to fade away, wither, lose freshness; (of flowers) to droop; -igar: to cause (ulo) to wither. Ex.: La suno velkigis la folii di la planti. — D

velociped-o: velociped. — DEFIS

velodrom-o: velodrome.

velur-o: velvet; -a: made of v.; -atr-ajo: imitation v.; velous. — DEFIS

ven-ar: (intr.) to come (ad, de); par-ve-ar: to arrive; par-ven-into: an arrival. — FIS

vend-ar: (tr.) to sell; -o, -ado: sale, selling; -eyo, -erio: shop, store; -anto, -into, -isto: dealer, vendor; -ebla: vendible, salable, marketable; -o-table: shop counter; -kontrato: bargain (written). Ant.: komprar. — EFIS

«vendetta»: vendetta.

venen-o: (also fig.) venom, poison; -a, -oza: venomous, poisonous; (fig.) malignant; -agar: (tr.) to poison (ulu); -izar: to put poison on (ulo); rat- -o: rat poison. — EFIS

vener-ala: venereal (relating to the disease); -iko, -ika: (person) afflicted with v. disease; -ala monto: (anat.) pubes, mons veneris. — DEFIRS

venerac-ar: (tr.) to venerate, reverence; -inda: venerable; -ema: reverent. Def.: Veneraco: projunda respekto religioza o religiatra; III-328. — EFIS

venerdi-o: Friday. — FI

venereologi-o: (2001) venereology. — DEFIRS

venial-a: venial: that may be forgiven; excusable; -a peko: v. sin. — EFIS

venj-ar: (tr.) to avenge, revenge; -ar su: to revenge oneself (su, ulu, kontre ulu, pri ulo); -o: revenge, vengeance; -ema: revengeful, vindicative; -em-eso: vindictiveness; -anto, -ero: avenger. V. exp.: Venjar ulu esas punisar, pro rankoro, altru qua facis domajo od ofenso ad «ulu». Venjar esas tranzitiva; on povas venjar su od altru; on povas anke venjar ulo (ex. l’ocido di sua patro). Pluse la venjo aplikesas, ne nur al autoro di la domajo od ofenso, ma anke a lua familio o havajo. Exemple, en Korsika, la venjo (vendetta) praktikesas inter du familii: se A ocidis B, la filio di B ocidas A; pose la filo di A ocidas la filio di B, . . . e tale senfine, o ti la destrukto di la du familii; VI-143; kp. revanchar, reprezalar. — EFIS

vent-ar: (intr.) to blow, be windy; -as: (impers.) it is windy, the wind is blowing, there is a (high) wind; -o: wind; -ego: strong wind, gale; -stroko: squall, gust of wind; -oza: windy; -izar: to give wind to; -iz-ilo: fan or fan-like instrument; para- -o: w. screen; -o-muel-ilo: w. mill; -o-flecho, -flago: weathervane; -o-rozo: (nav.) compass card. — DEFIS

ventil-ar: (tr.) to ventilate, air. — DEFIRS

ventilator-o: ventilator; kanvas- -o: (nav.) windsail.

ventr-o: belly, paunch, stomach; (of bottles, etc.) belly, body (cf. abdomeno, stomako); -ala: ventral: relating to the b.; -oza: paunchy, big bellied; -edo: bellyful; -zono: b. band; girth (of a horse); -doloro: b. ache. — EFIS

ventrikul-o: (anat.) ventricle. — DEFIS

ventro-parol-ar: (intr.) to ventriloquize; -ado, -iv-eso: ventriloquism; -anto, -ero: ventriloquist.

ventuz-o: (surg.) cupping-glass; -agar: to cup (ulu). — FIRS

«Venus»: (astron.) Venus, the planet; (myth.) Venus, the goddess of love.

venusmonto: (anat.) mons pubis, (fem.) mons Venus.

ver-a: true, veritable (cf. reala, autentika); -eso: (quality) truth; -ajo: a truth; la -a: (abstract) the truth; -e: verily, truly (cf. ad-vere); ver-simil-a: likely, plausible, true seeming; versimil-ajo, -eso: likelihood, versimilitude (cf. probablajo); ver-sembl-anta: ostensible, apparent; ver-sembl-eso: speciousness; -igar: to make (ulo) true; (math.) to prove; ne-ver-ajo, -eso: falsehood, falseness. Ex.: Vera diamanto. Vu ne dicas la verajo. Esas nula vereso en to quon vu dicas. Matematikala verajo. Fato vere tragediala. Ulfoye la verso povas semblar tre neversimila. La deskovro di lo vera ofte dependas de la komparo di versimilaji. Lu esas verdicanta homo. La verdicemeso di historiisto. — EFIS

verand-o: veranda. — DEFIR

verb-o: (gram.) verb; -ala: verbal: relating to v.s. — DEFIS

verbask-o: (bot.) mullein (genus: Verbascum). — IL

verben-o: (bot.) verbena, vervain (genus: Verbena). — DEFIRS

verd-a: (color) green, verdant; -eso: green(ness); -ajo: a g. object; verdure; (pl., fig.) salad-herbs, pot-herbs; -igar, -izar: to make, cover with, g.; -eskar: to turn g. — EFIS

verdigris-o: verdigris. — EF

verdikt-o: (jur.) verdict; finding; facar -o: to render a v. — DEFIRS

verdug-o*: (jur.) the person charged with executing the verdict of death; executioner.

verdron-o: (orni.) greenfinch, greenlinnet (Fringilla chloris). — F

verg-o: rod, wand; ferule or birch (used for punishment); (slang) penis; -eto: small rod, switch; -agar: (tr.) to flog (with a birch), to cane; -o-marko: mark of a rod. Ex.: La vergo di Moses, di magiisto. Frapar ulu per vergeto. — FI

verifik-ar: (tr.) to verify (by examination), to confirm; to try, test (weights and measures); to audit; to prove (a will); -(ad)o: verification, examining, auditing; (of wills) probate; -isto, -ero: verifier, inspector, auditor. Def.: Kontrolar l’exakteso, justeso di kalkulo, di mezuro o mezurilo; III-203. Ex.: L’evento verifikas lua predico. Verifikar aserto, signaturo. — DEFIS

verjus-o: verjuice: the sour juice of unripe or green fruits; (fig.) acid liquor. V. exp.: Dicesas metafore pri vino tro yuna od acida; IV-646. — EF

verk-o: (lit., artist., moral, social) work; -eto: essay, pamphlet; small deed; -aro: literature (= books in general; cf. literaturo); -aro cienc-ala: scientific works (books). Ex.: Verki da Molière. La merito di bona verki. On opinionis ne vivar vane quankam lua verki apene lasas traci. — DE

verm-o: worm: any small creeping animal; maggot, grub (cf. larvo, lombriko, silko-raupo, tenio); -oza: wormy; -o-rod-ita: w. eaten; -o-forma: w. shaped; (anat.) vermiform; -et-oza: (arch.) vermicular. — DEFI

vermicel-o: vermicelli. — EFIR

vermut-o: (liqueur) verm(o)uth. — DEFIRS

vernier-o: vernier: a sliding rule.

vernis-o: varnish; -izar: to v. — EFI

veronik-o: (bot.) veronica: speedwell (genus: Veronica). — DEFIS

vers: (prep., physical sense) toward(s): in the direction of (cf. ad); vers la nordo: t. the north; levar la manui vers la cielo: to hold up the hands to heaven; lu turnis sua kapo vers me: he turned his head toward me. Def.: Direciono en la spaco; VI-144. — FI

vers-o: verse (in poetry; also of Bible); -ajo, -aro: a piece of poetry, verse(s), poem; -o sen-rima: blank v.; -ifar: to write v.; -igar: to versify (ulo). — DEFIS

version-o: version: manner of relating a fact (cf. tradukuro). Ex.: Existas plura versioni pri l’acidento. — DEFIS

versor-o: (math.) versor.

vertebr-o: vertebra: joint or bone of spine; -ala kolono: vertebral column; -oza, -ozo: vertebrate animal; sen- -a, -o: invertebrate (animal). — DEFIS

vertic-o: vertex: top, crow (of head), sinciput. — EFIS

vertig-o*: (vet.) staggers.

vertij-ar, -eskar: (intr.) to be dizzy, have a swimming, whirling sensation (cf. aturdar); -o: vertigo, dizziness, giddiness; -anta: dizzy (sensation, head); (med.) vertiginous; -ig-iva, -ig-anta: causing dizziness (heights, etc.). — EFIS

vertikal-a: vertical, perpendicular, plumb; -o: v. line; -eso: verticalness (cf. perpendikl-eso). — DEFIRS

vertu-o: virtue (cf. chast-eso); -oza: virtuous; esar -oza pro neceseso: to make a virtue of necessity. Def.: Etikala tendenco facar lo bona ed evitar lo mala. Ex.: Vertui kardinala. Vertuoza homo, ago. Ant.: vicio. — EFIS

veruk-o: (med.) wart. — FIS

verv-o: verve: animation, spirit, go; -oza: animated, spirited, racy; -oza stilo: animated style; -o poeziala: poetic spirit. Def.: Ardoro di imaginado, di la spirito, qua anmizas la poeto, l’oratoro, la konversanto, e.c. V. exp.: vid. entuziasmo. — DEF

vesp-o: (ent.) wasp; -eyo, -o-nesto: w. nest. — DEIS

vesper-o: evening; -ala: evening, vesper (star, prayer, etc.); -e: in the evening; -festo, -kun-veno: evening party, soiree; ca- -e: this evening; pasar la -o: to spend the e.; dicar (od, dezirar) bon- -o (ad ulu): to say good e. — eL

vespertili-o: (zool.) bat (genus: Vespertilio). — L

vespr-o, -i: (R.C. relig.) vesper(s). — DEFIS

vest-o: garment: article of clothing, vestment; -aro: clothes, attire, dress, toilet, garb, habiliment; raiment, wearing apparel; -eyo, -iz-eyo: dressing-place, -room; -izar: to clothe, dress, array (ulu, per ulo) (cf. metar); -iz-ita: dressed, clad; -iz-achar: to rig out in, bedizen (ridiculously); -o-dono regul-ier-ala: taking the habit or veil (friars or nuns); -o-vend-isto: clothier; sub- -o: undergarment; trauro- -o: mourning garment. — EFIS

vestal-o: vestal-virgin; (fig.) chaste woman. — DEFIRS

vesti-o: round jackets (without tails, as for waiters, fencing, etc.). — F

vestibul-o: vestibule: front hall of an edifice, anteroom, lobby. — DEFIS

veston-o: jacket: short coat for men (cf. jaketo). — F

vet-ar: (tr.) to veto, negative (ulo); -o-yuro: right of veto.

veter-o: weather; -o nub-oza: cloudy w. — De

veteran-o: veteran: old soldier; (fig.) any one of long practice. — DEFIRS

veterinar-o: veterinary (-surgeon). — DEFIRS

vetiver-o: (bot.) vetiver (genus: Andropogon). — DEFS

vetrin-o: glass case (for showing objects, as in museums, shops, etc.), show-case. — FI

vetur-o: vehicle (serving to transport persons or merchandise, carriage, wagon, conveyance; -irar: (od, -vehar): to go, travel, drive in a v.; -agar, -transportar: to carry in vehicle (cf. veh-igar); -edo: wagonful; quar-rota -o: four wheeled v.; manu-, hom- -o: hand-cart; lokac- -o: v. for hire, fly. — FI

vex-ar: (tr.) to vex, provoke, irritate (cf. despitar, molestar); -etar: to tease, plague, tantalize; -et-ema: teasing (person); la deskomforto jenas me; me esas vexata pro to: the inconvenience annoys me; I am vexed because of it; la pueruli vexetas la puerini: the boys tease the girls. — DE

vezik-o: (anat., zool.) bladder; -eto: small b.; (of skin) vesicle; -igar: to vesicate: blister; -ig-iva: vesicatory. — EFIL

vezikatori-o: (med.) vesicatory: blistering application. — DEFIS

vi: you (plural, see vu); via: your (plural).

viadukt-o: viaduct. — DEFIRS

viatik-o: money or provisions given for a journey; (R.C. relig.) viaticum, last sacrament. V. exp.: La primitiva senco esas voyajo-subvenciono, de qua venas la religiala senco; IV-646. — DEFIS

vibr-(ad)ar: (intr.) to vibrate. Ex.: Vibrado di la violin-kordi, di la aero, di pendulo. — DEFIS

vibrion-o: (bacteriol.) vibrio (genus: Vibrio). — DEFIRSL

viburn-o: viburnum, snow-ball tree (genus: Viburnum). — EFIS

vice(-): (prep. and prefix) vice, instead of; - ke: (conj.) instead that. Ex.: Vice Iphigenia cervino sakrifikesis ad Artemis. Vice laborar, vu dormis..

vice-parol-anto, -ero: spokesman.

vice-prezid-anto: vice-president.

vicer-o: (anat.) viscus; -i, -aro: viscera; -ala: visceral. V. exp.: Vicero havas senco diferanta de intestino, e plu vasta: ex. la kordio esas vicero; IV-81. — EFIS

vice-rej-o: viceroy.

vici-o: vice: fault of character (cf. defekto, manko); -ozeso: viciousness, depravity; -oza: vicious (cf. perversa); -oza cirklo: (fig.) vicious circle; -izar: to vitiate: taint, contaminate; to sully (the character of); (jur.) to render defective or void. Ex.: Ebriemeso esas vicio. Vici-izar legal akto. Ant.: vertuo. — EFIS

vicin-a: (esp. of people) neighboring, bordering, contiguous, adjacent (cf. proxima, apuda, kontigua); -(ul)o: neighbor; -aro: neighborhood: neighbors; -eso: (state) neighborhood: nearness, vicinity (of); -ajo: vicinity: (place); something neighboring (cf. cirkum-ajo); -esar: to be contiguous. — EFIS

vid-ar: (tr.) to see; -igar (ulo da ulu): to cause someone to see something; -(ad)o: sight, vision: act of seeing; -ajo: what is seen, a sight, a view; -eyo: (locality) viewpoint; -punto: (mental) viewpoint, point of view; -ala: visual; -ebla: visible, apparent (cf. apar-anta, sembl-anta); -inda: worth seeing; -ind-ajo: something worth seeing; -enda: what ought or must be seen; -organo: organ of vision; mi- -ar: to catch a glimpse of, see imperfectly; inter- -o: interview: meeting for conference. Ex.: Lu lasis me vidar nulo, ma lu vidis omno vidinda. Konocar ulu per la vido. Pagebla ye vido. V. exp.: vid. regardar. — FIR

vidam-o: (feudalism) vidame. — EFIRS

vidv-a: widowed; -ulo: widower; -ino: widow; -eso: widowhood; -eskar: to become a widow(er). — DEFIRS

viel-o: vielle: a stringed instrument played upon with a wheel (cf. turn-orgeno). Def.: Instrumento muzkala kun kordi, quan on pleas per manivelo e klavi. — DEF

vigil-ar: (intr.) to abstain from sleep; to watch; to sit up (cf. vekar); -(ad)o: vigil: being awake; on the alert; watching; (act.) vigilance; -anta: wide-awake, vigilant (act); -ema: (tendency) watchful, vigilant; -em-eso: vigilance; -anto, -ero, -isto: watcher; armo- -o: armed watch; -ar por malado: to sit up for (with) a sick person; -ar til jorno (lumo): to sit up, stay up, keep awake until daylight; -anta patro di la familio: a watchful father of the family; -anta sorgo: vigilant care. — EFIS

vigili-o: vigil; eve of a feast of R.C. church. V. exp.: La dio ante la dio, quan on konsideras. Necesa ed internaciona en la religial uzo; IV-646. — DEFIS

vigor-o: vigor; -oza, -oze: vigorous (ly). Ex.: Vigoro di yuneso, di la mento. Agar vigoroze. — EFIS

vikari-o: vicar: substitute in office; curate; -eso: vicariate; curacy; la -o di Iesu Kristo: the v. of Jesus Christ, the pope; grand- -o (od, vikario-generalo): v. general. — DEFIRS

viktim-o: victim: person or animal sacrificed; (fig.) sufferer, dupe; -igar: to victimize (ulu); -o-homa: human v. — EFIS

viktuali-o: victuals, provisions; (nav.) stores. Def.: Provizuri por manjar; IV-646. — DEFS

vikun-o: (zool.) vicuna, vicugna (Auchenia vicunna); -lano: v. cloth. — DEFIRS

vil-o: (bot., anat.) villosity: coating of hairs; -oza: villous (cf. vilozit-o). — EFIS

vilaj-o: village; -eto: small v., hamlet; -ano: villager. — EFI

vilanel-o: villanelle: a kind of rustic ballad or dance. — DEFIRS

vild-o: (wild) game; -oza: full of g.; -izar: to stock with g.: -chasar, -kaptar: to hunt; -kapt-isto, vend-isto: fowler, sportsman; dealer in g.; -o-karno: flesh of g.; -o-sako: g. bag; plum- -o: feathered g.; wild fowl. — D

vilej-ar: (intr.) to rusticate; -(ad)o: sojourn in the country. — FI

«villa»: villa.

vilozit-o, -i: (of intestines) villosity (cf. vilo).

vimpl-o: wimple (as of nuns). — E

vin-o: wine; -ala,-oza, -atra: vinous; -ea: w. colored; -if-ado: vinification, w. making; -vend-eyo, -erio: w. shop; -o nefermentacinta: unfermented w., sweet w.; -o sen-sukra: dry w. — DEFIRS

vinagr-o: vinegar; -ifar: to make v.; -izar: to put v. on; -uyo: v. cruet; -holder. — EFS

vind-ar: (tr.) to reel up; to wind or hoist (as with a windlass; cf. spular, hisar, en-volvar); -ilo: windlass, winch. — DE

vinil-o: (2001) vinyl (such as PVC). — DEFIRS

vink-ar: (tr.) to overcome, vanquish, conquer, master, defeat, get the better of; (intr.) to win; be victorious; -o: victory; -anto, -ero: conquerer, victor; -anta, -ema, -oza: victorious; -ala kanto: song of victory. — EFIS

vintr-o: winter; -ala: wintry; -e: in w.; en meza -o: in the depth of w. — DE

vinyet-o: (engraved) vignette (of books, papers); -oza papero: paper with ornamented borders. — DEFIRS

viol-o: (bot.) violet; -ea, -kolora: v. colored, purple; -atra: v. like; purplish. — EFIRS

violac-ar: (tr.) to violate: to infringe, transgress, break a law, one’s oath; to ravish, rape (a female); -o: rape; violation; -ante la reguli: in violation of the rules. — EFIS

violent-ar: (tr.) to violate: do or use violence to, to ill use, force (ulu, ulo); -(ad)o: violating, violence; (jur.) force; -ala morto: violent death; -oza, -ema: violent (persons, winds, passions, etc.); -esar: to suffer violence (da). Ex.: Violentar la koncienco. — EF

violin-o: violin, fiddle; -plear: to play the v.; -agar: to play (ulo) on the v.; -(ple)ero, -isto: v. player. — DEFIS

violoncel-o: violoncello, ’cello. — DEFIS

viper-o: viper: venemous reptile, as adder; (fig.) malignant person; -ala, -atra: viperine; -lango: (fig.) an evil tongue. — DEFIS

vir-o: a (grown) man, a manly person: male adult possessing masculine qualities, as a soldier, etc.; -ala, -atra: virile, manly (of voice, sexual organs, etc.); -eso: virility, manliness, manhood, man's estate, vigor; -aro: crew (of a ship), squad of men, etc.; -atra mulier-o: virago; -izar: to man, provide men for. — EFIS

virg-a: virgin(al): entirely chaste, also in fig. sense; -a tero: v. soil; -a foresto: untrodden forest; -a metalo: native, v. metal; -ulo: a chaste man or male; -ino: virgin; -ala, -in-ala: virginal, maidenly; -eso, -in-eso: virginity, maidenhood. — EFIS

Virgili-ala: Virgilian, of Virgil.

virologi-o: (2001) virology. — DEFIRS

virtual-a: (philos., opt., mechan.) virtual, potential; -e: virtually; -eso, -ajo: virtuality, potentiality; -a rapid-eso: v. velocity; -a foko: v. focus. Def.: Qua esas en potencialo, ma ne en efekto aktuala. Ex.: Armeo virtuale vinkita. — DEFIRS

virtuoz-a: (highly) skilled, artistic, masterly; -(ul)o: virtuoso; -eso: virtuosity, virtuosoship: professional or consummate skill, artistic perfection, masterly style or play. — DEFIS

virulent-a: virulent; -eso: virulence. — DEFIS

virus-o: (med.) virus; -oza: poisonous. — DEFIS

vis-ar: (tr., intr.) to screw in: turn in a screw; -(ad)o: screwing (of screws); -ilo: screw-driver; -ilo ajust-ebla: a spanner, stillson or monkey wrench. V. exp.: On visas skrubi. On skrub-agas, skrub-ligas ulo, quale kesto, buxo, e.c. — F

vish-ar: (tr.) to wipe (off), wipe dry by rubbing (cf. sik-igar); manu- -ilo: towel; plum- ilo: pen-wiper. — D

viskomt-o: (title) viscount. — DEFIRS

viskoz-a: viscous, viscid (cf. glutin-iva); -eso: viscosity. — DEFIS

vist-ar: (tr.) to visé: to endorse, countersign; -o: visé: official signature. Def.: Oficale signatar od autentikigar dokumento od akto. Ex.: La visto di konsulo sur pasporto. — eIS

vit-o: (bot.) vine; -eyo, -agro: vineyard; -folio: leaf of the v.; -kultiv-ado: v. culture; (fig.) wine-growing; -bero: grape; sika vit-bero: raisin; vito-grapo: bunch of grapes; -re-koltar: to gather the vintage; -o Virginiana: Virginia creeper. — EFIS

vital-ismo: vitalism: a biological doctrine; -isto: vitalist. — DEFIRS

vitamin-o: (2001) vitamin. — DEFIRS

vitel-o: vitellus: yolk of egg; -ala: vitelline. — EFIS

vitr-o: (the material) glass; -a: (made of) g.; -ala, -atra: glass, vitreous; -izar: to furnish or cover (ulo) with g. (windows, etc.); -iz-isto: glazier (cf. glezar); -igar (tr.), -eskar (intr.): to vitrify; -ifar: to make g.; -if-erio: g. works; -if-isto: g. maker; -o-karelo: pane (as of a window); -o-tekto: g. roof; -o-papero: sand-paper; -o-parieto: g. partition; -o-plako: plate g.; -ach-ajo, -aji: glass trinkets, g. beads. — EFIS

vitrali-o (-fenestro): stained-glass window (as in churches). Def.: Vitro artala, kolorizita, dekoriva, qua klozas fenestro (quale en kelka kirki e laika edifici); IV-646. — F

vitriol-o: vitriol. — DEFIS

viul-o: (mus.) viol; name for instruments of violin family; bas- -o: bass-viol (cf. violoncelo). Def.: Anciena formo d grosa violino de qua developesis la moderna speci di violini). — DEFIRS

viv-ar: (intr., tr.) to live: be living, be alive (cf. habitar, kondutar); -o: life; -ala: vital (cf. esenca, ne-kare-ebla); -anto: living person; -anta: alive, living; -oza, -ema: full of life, animated, lively, vivacious; -oz-eso: vitality; -em-eso: vivacity (cf. vivaca); -etar, -achar: to make shift to live, live from hand to mouth; -igar: to vivify, quicken, give life to, animate (cf. anm-izar); -iva, -kapabla: likely to live, capable of living; -ez! viv- klamo: vive! long live! hurrah, cheer; trans- -ar: to survive: remain alive; bon-viv-anto: bon-vivant, high-liver; gaya viv-anto: lively, good-humored person; dum-viva (od, viv-dur-anta) rento: life annuity. Ex.: Fishi povas vivar nur en l’aquo. Lu vivas mizerosa vivo. Lasar ulu vivar. Vivar sua vivo. Qua vivos vidos. La tempo dum qua lu vivis. Vivar quale ermito. Dum la vivo di. Vivala povo, principo. Vivozeso di forta viro. Vivemeso di pueri. La mediko dicas, ke ica infanto esas viviva. La mento vivigas la korpo. Ant.: mortar. — EFIS

vivac-a: lively, nimble, vivacious, sprightly, brisk; -eso: vivacity: liveliness; ta infanto esas tre -a: that child is very lively; il vivacigas omno quon il agas: he puts life into whatever he does. — EFIS

viv-dis-sek-ar: (tr.) to vivisect: to dissect living beings.

vivipar-a: viviparous.

viz-ar: (tr., intr.) to aim at, to take aim (cf. intencar, tendencar, ambiciar); -o: aim: direction of the sight toward an object; -ar (vers) ucelo: to aim at a bird; -o-grano: sight (of a gun); -lineo: line of aim. — F

vizaj-o: visage: face of a person. Def.: L’avana parto di la homala kapo, konsiderata de extere ed en lua expresiveso; V-679. — EFI

vizel-o: (zool.) weasel (Mustela vulgaris). — DE

vizier-o: visor (of a helmet, a cap); okul- -o: eye-shade (for the head). — DEFIS

vizion-o: vision, apparition; -era, -ema; -ero, emo: visionary (person). Ex.: Imaginar sua vizioni esar realaji. La vizioni di la profeti. Unesme la populo nomizis Columbus kom vizionero. — DEFIS

vizir-o: vizier, wazeer; granda -o: g. v. — DEFIRS

vizit-ar: (tr.) to visit, pay a v. to, call upon (ulu, ulo); -karto: visiting card; -festo: (rel.) visitation. — DEFIRS

voc-o: (also gram.) voice; (fig.) expression of opinion; -o alta, basa, klara, obskura, rupto-sona: high, low clear, unclear, broken v.; mi- -e: in an undertone; -e: by word of mouth; voca voto: viva voce vote; -ala: vocal, verbal, oral, uttered or relating to the v.; -o-kondukt-ilo: v. conductor (cf. parol-tubo); la -o publika: (fig.) public opinion; la -o di koncienco: (fig.) the v. of conscience; elekt-ita per 7 voci ek 12: elected by 7 out of 12 (viva voce) votes; -o-reflekt-ilo: sounding board (as for pulpit); sen-voc-eso: loss of voice, aphonia. — EFIS

vodevil-o: (theat.) vaudeville. — DEFIR

vodk-o: (2001) vodka. — DEFIRS

(ad)vok-ar: (tr., intr., also fig.) to call (to) (ulu), ask to come, summons; -eso: vocation. Ex.: (Ad-)vokar la hundo per lua nomo. (Ad-)vokar la guardo. Vokar por helpo. Kun-vokar la rezervo-trupi a la militala servado. Vokar (a) Deo por helpo. Mea patrio esas en danjero, la honoro vokas. V. exp.: vid. klamar. — eIL

vocal-o: (gram.) vowel. — DEFIS

vokaliz-ar: (intr., tr., mus.) to vocalize: to sing a vowel sound without uttering words. — DEFIRS

vokativ-o: (gram.) vocative (case). — DEFIS

vol-ar: (tr.) to will: determine in the mind, to decide, resolve, exercise volition (cf. dezirar, voluntar); -o: (act) will, volition; -ado: (faculty) the will, volition; -eto, -esko: low degree of will, fancy, mind, slight degree of inclination, caprice, humor; -ala: willful: relating to will; -ata, -ita: willed, willful, intended, voluntary (cf. voluntar); -e: willfully; -anta: voluntary: proceeding from free-will; sen-vol-a: involuntary; segun-vol-a: optional; segun-vole: at pleasure, at will; segun-vola pafado: firing at will; bon-, mal- -volo: good, ill will; me volas vidar il: I will (am determined) to see him; me volas facar ol: I mean to (will) do it; me ne volas: I won’t, I do not mean to; volo ne-flex-ebla: inflexible will; la reflexi esas ne-dependanta de la volado: the reflexes are independent of the will (volition); me havas vol-eto refuzar: I have a mind to refuse; vol-ala (od, vol-anta) ago, movo: voluntary act, motion; vol-ita eroro: willful error. — DEFIRS

volatil-a: volatile; -eso: volatility. Def.: Vaporeskema ye l’ordinara temperaturo; IV-4. — EFIS

volf-o, -ulo, -ino: wolf; (astron.) Wolf, Lupus; -o-homo: (mythol.) were-wolf.

volkan-o: volcano; -ala, -atra: volcanic (stone, etc.); -oza: volcanic: full of v.s; -o exting-ita: extinct v. — DEFIRS

volontari-o: (esp. military) volunteer. — DEFIRS

volt-ar: (intr.) to volt: make a sudden turn or leap aside (as in fencing) (cf. voltijar). — DEFIRS

volt-o: (elec.) volt. — DEFIRS

voltij-ar: (intr.) to vault (on a horse, on a slack rope, etc.); -(ad)o: vaulting, leaping, tumbling; -anto, -isto: leaper, vaulter, tumbler; -ero: (fig.) voltigeur: F. light-infantry soldier. — DEFIR

voltmetr-o: voltmeter. — DEFIRS

volumin-o: (geom.) volume: space occupied (cf. maso, tomo); -oza: voluminous, bulky. — DEFIS

volunt-ar: (tr., intr.) to be willing (to); to have no objection (to); (in polite phrases) to be so kind as, be pleased to; -o: willingness, good-will; -a, -ala, -anta: voluntary, willingly; -ez: please; -e: gladly, readily, willingly. Ex.: Me voluntas facar to. Voluntez enirar, sioro. Voluntez dicar a me. Me akompanos vu tre volunte. On volunte (E. readily) kredas to quon on deziras kredar. V. exp.: Voluntez esas vicina a komplezez, degnez, ma min forta; VI-213. La tri vorti: voluntar, komplezar, degnar formacas gradaro: komplezo esas ulo plu kam volunto; degno esas komplezo o favoro di altranga persono; II-648. — EFI

volupt-o: voluptuousness; -oza: voluptuous (sensation, etc.); -ema, -emo: voluptuous (person). Def.: Granda plezuro sensala. — EFIS

volut-o: (arch.) volute, spiral scroll. — DEFIRS

(en-)volv-ar: (tr.) to roll up, wrap around; to coil (a rope); -ar su: to wrap up oneself (cf. spular). Ex.: (En-)volvar standardo cirkum lua shafto. Volvar kordo cirkum la korpo. (En-)volvar peco de stofo. V. exp.: vid. envelopar. — L

vom-ar: (tr., intr.) to vomit, throw up, belch out (wind, gas, etc.); -ajo: vomit: what is thrown up; -ig-iva, -ig-ivo: vomitive, emetic. Ex.: Vomar sango. La volkano vomas flamo. — EFIS

vomer-o: (anat.) vomer: nostril bone.

vomik-o: (med.) vomica: abscess cavity in the lungs.

vomiknuc-o: nux-vomica, vomic-nut; -iero: n. v. tree (Strychnos Nux-vomica). — EFIS

vomitori-o: (anc. arch.) vomitory. Def.: Arkeologiala termino: enireyo ed ekireyo en la teatri ed amfi-teatri; IV-647. — DEFIS

vort-o: (written, printed) word (cf. parolo); -aro: collection of words; vocabulary; -o-libro: word-book, dictionary; -ope, -opa: verbatim, word for word, literal (translation); -ifar: to build words; -if(ad)o: word building; vort-procesoro: word-processor. — DE

vortic-ar: (intr.) to whirl, rotate rapidly; -o: whirling, vortex; aer- -o: whirlwind; aquo- -o: whirlpool; vortico di aferi: rush of business; polvo- -o: cloud of dust. — EI

vot-ar: (intr.) to vote (either viva voce or by ballot) (por, kontre): (tr.) to v. for (ulu); to enact (ulo); -(ad)o: vote, voting; voice, suffrage, ballot; -anto, -into: voter; -yuro: right to v.; balot-voto: vote by (second) ballot; listo- -o: ballot by list; -o-konto: polling: count of votes; -o per manui: show of hands; -ado universala: universal suffrage; votar por lego: to vote for a law; votar lego: to enact a law. — DEFIRS

vov-ar: (tr., intr.) to vow, make a v. (of); -o: vow; -ajo: votive offering; -ala: votive. Ex.: Vovar absteno. Vovar templo a deo. — EF

voy-o: (tera, fera, mara) way, road; (R.R.) track, route; -eto: path(way), footpath; -ego: broad road, highway; -ifar: to make a road; mi- -o (ye): half-way; lakto- -o: (astron.) Milky Way; fer- -o: railroad; kargo-letro fervoy-ala: way-bill; voy-administrado: administration of public ways; voy-labor-isto: road worker. — F

voyaj-ar: (intr.) to travel; (by water) to voyage; -eskar: to start on a journey; -o: travel(ing); trip (cf. turo); -ado: frequent or continued travel; -anta; -ero: traveling, traveler, passenger; -ema; -emo: (person) fond of t.; itinerant, strolling; -o-spensi: traveling expenses; vivo- -o: (fig.) life’s journey; komerc- -isto: commercial traveler; -era kolombo: carrier pigeon. Ex.: Voyajar en Azia, de London a New York. — EFIS

vu (pl. vi): you; (for familiar usage cf. tu); vua (pl. via or vui): your(s), your own; vua relati: your relations; mea esas verda, vua esas reda: mine is green, yours (pl.) are red; ube esas la kamizi? Vui esas en l’armoro e mei esas en la laveyo: where are the shirts? yours are in the press and mine are in the wash; prenez elia manteli kun via: take their cloaks with your own (pl.). — FIR

vulgar-a: vulgar: used or done by the common run of people, common, popular, unrefined; (N.B. for low, coarse sense, cf. grosiera, ne-polita, mal-gusta); (noun form = populo, turbo, plebey-aro); -eso: (quality) vulgarism: commonness, unrefinedness (N.B. not «low», cf. grosier-ajo); -igar: to vulgarize: make popular; -ig-anto, -ero: popularizer; -a traduko di Biblo: vulgar version of the Bible (cf. vulgato); -a parolado, opiniono, pre-judiki: vulgar tongue, opinion, prejudices. — DEFIRS

vulgat-o: Vulgate: Latin version of the Bible. — DEFIRS

vulkan-ala: (geol.) Vulcanian.

vulkaniz-ar: (tr.) to vulcanize. — DEFIRS

vulnerari-o: (bot.) kidney-vetch, wound-wort (Vulneraria rustica). — FIS

vult-o: (arch.) vault (cf. mason-ita tombo, kelero); -atra: v. like, archlike; -izar: to cover with a v.; -igar: to arch; -iz-ita, -ig-ita: vaulted, arched. — EFI

vultur-o: (orni.) vulture; (fig.) a rapacious person. — EFI

vulv-o: (anat.) vulva. — DEFIRS

vund-ar: (tr.) to wound (cf. lezar, kontuzar, ofensar); -o, -uro: wound(ing); -ebla: (also fig.) vulnerable. — DE