Ido-English Dictionary : S

sabat-o: Sabbath: seventh day of the week among the Jews (Saturday); (fig.) the first day of the week as observed by Christians (Sunday) (cf. sundio, saturdio). — DEFIRS

sabelik-o: savoy (cabbage. Brassica sabanda). — L

sabl-o: sand; -oza: sandy: full of s.; -a plajo: s. beach; -eto: fine s.; scouring s.; -o-grano: grain of s.; -uyo: s. holder, s. box; -eyo; -o-min-eyo: sandy spot, sandpit; -o mov-anta: shifting s.; -izar: to s.: cover with s.; -o-horlojo: hour-glass; -o-strato: s. bar. — FIS

sabord-o: (square) porthole; gunport. — F

sabot-ar: (tr.) to sabotage. — DEFIRS

sabr-o: saber (sabre), broadsword; -eto; -o por abordar: cutlass; -uyo; -o-gaino: s. scabbard; -frapar, -agar: to s. (ulu); -frapo, -vund-uro: blow with a s., s. wound; -o-posho: sabretache. Def.: Speco di espado kun tranchanta lamo larja. — DEFIRS

sacerdot-(ul)o: priest; -ino: priestess; -ala: sacerdotal, priestly; -eso: (dignity, office) priesthood; -aro: (collect.) priesthood. — EFIS

saci-ar: (tr.) to give a bare sufficiency to, give a minimum to (ulu); -esar: to content oneself; put up with; -esar da poko: to put up with a little. V. exp.: Saturar esas furnisar la maximo, e saciar esas furnisar la minimo suficanta por kalmigar o cesigar irga bezono. On povas saciar sua hungro per pano-peco, sua dirsto per glasedo de aquo; ma kande on saturas su per manjaji o drinkaji, on riskas, sive mala digesto sive ebrieso. Simile pri omna bezoni e deziri. Existas ofte granda difero o neegaleso inter la minimo strikte necesa por saciar e la maximo qua saturas. Me tre deziras salario de dek franki; me saciesus da ok franki, ma me ne esas kontenta, nam generale, por esar vere kontenta, on bezonas plu kam la minimo necesa. Do saciar ne esas kontentigar, nek saciesar esas kontent-esar, -eskar. Saciar expresas esence sentimento; do saciar povas havar nur persono kom objekto, kontre ke suficar povas havar omnaspeca objekti; kp. VI-488. — FIS

sadism-o: Sadism. — DEFIRS

safen-a (veini): (anat.) saphenous (veins).

safir-o: (min.) sapphire. — DEFIRS

safran-o: (bot. and colo(u)ring material) saffron (Crocus [sativus]); -ea: s. colo(u)red; -izar, -agar: (tr.) to s.: tinge with yellow. — DEFIRS

sagac-a: sagacious, perspicacious, shrewd; -eso: sagacity, acumen, acuteness, discernment; -(ul)o: a s. person. Ex.: Sagaco dicernas multa diferi ube altri vidas nur kozi uniforma. — EFIS

sagitari-o:
(bot.) arrow-head (genus: Sagittaria). — FISL

saguin-o: (zool.) sagoin: squirrel-monkey, marmoset of genus: Callithrix. — DEFIRS

sagut-o: sago (cf. tapiokao); -iero: s. tree or palm (Cycas Metrocylon). — DEFIRS

saim-o: lard (cf. lardo). Def.: Porko-graso fuzita, sen salo; IV-581. — I

saj-a: wise, knowing, enlightened, sage, sensible, reasonable; -eso: wisdom; -(ul)o: a wise person, a sage; -igar, -eskar: to make, to become wise; ne- -a: unwise, ill-advised. Ex.: Saja lego, politikisto, konduto, judiciisto. La sajeso di la Egiptiani. Il montris granda sajeso en ta cirkonstanci. Ant.: stulta, absurda. — EFIS

sak-o: (also anat. and bot.) sack: bag, pouch; -edo: sackful, bagful; -o papera: a paper bag; -o-reto: net bag; drag net, trawl; -o de frumento: s. of wheat; ledor- -o: leather pouch; manu- -o: handbag, satchel; sablo- -o: sandbag: bag for sand; sako de sablo: sandbag: bag of sand; sako-strado: blind alley, cul-de-sac. — DEFIS

sakarimetr-o: saccharimeter, saccharimetry. — DEFIS

sakarin-o: saccharin(e). — DEFIS

sakr-a: sacred; -eso: sacredness; -ajo: a s. object; -igar: to render s., to consecrate (ulu, ulo); (fig.) to annoint, crown (a king); (cf. konsakrar); -o-santa: sacrosanct, most holy. Ex.: Sakra historio. La sakra ordi. La sakra fairo di Vesta. Sekretajo esas sakrajo. Sakrigar episkopo, rejo. — EFIS

sakrament-o: sacrament. Ex.: Donar la lasta sakramenti ad uli. Sakramentala vino. La katolikismo havas sep sakramenti: sakramento di bapto, di konfirmo, di la extrema unciono, e.c. — DEFIRS

sakrifik-ar: (tr., intr.: lit. and fig.) to sacrifice (ulu, ulo); to make offerings; -o, -ajo: sacrifice, offering; -ala: sacrificial; hom- -o: human s. Ex.: Sakrifikar viktimi, sua interesti, sua havaji, sua tempo. La sakrifiko di la meso, di la honoro. La sakrifiko di Izaak da Abraham. — EFIS

sakrilej-ar: (intr.) to commit a sacrilege; -anta, -inta: sacrilegious. Def.: Profanacar ulu, ulo veneracinda o sakra. Ex.: Sakrilejar kontre sacerdoto, kontre vestalo. (fig.) Esus sakrilejo abatar ica belega arboro. — DEFIS

sakrist-o: sexton; sacristan; -io: sacristy. — DEFIS

sakrum-o: (anat.) sacrum. — EFIS

sal-o: salt; (chem.) sodium chloride; -ifar: to salify: to produce salt; -igar: to salify: to form a salt with; to impregnate (ulo) with salt; -izar: to cover (ulo) with salt; -a kolono: a column (made) of salt; -ala legi: laws relating to s.; -oza fisho: a salty fish; -iz-ita porko-karno: salt pork; -if-isto: a salt-maker (producer); -iz-isto: a salter, curer; -atra: (tendency) salty; brackish; -uyo, -iz-uyo: salt-shaker, salting-box; -oz-eso: saltness; -aquo: salt water; -min-eyo: salt-mine; -o grosa: coarse salt; -grano: grain of salt; -marsho: a salt marsh; amoniak-salo: sal ammoniac. — DEFIRS

salad-o: salad; -uyo: s. dish, s. bowl. — DEFIRS

salamandr-o: (zool.) salamander (Salamandra). — DEFIRS

salari-ar:
(tr.) to pay a stipend, wages, a salary to (ulu); -o, -ajo: salary, wages stipend; -ato: a salaried person; -at-acho: hireling. — DEFIS

sald-ar: (tr.) to settle with: pay the balance due on an account current; -o, -uro: settlement, payment; -ajo: balance due: difference between debits and credits of a running account; (cf. bilanco). Ex.: Saldar trupi, employati. — DFI

salep-o:
(esp. pharm.) salep: dried roots of various orchids. — DEFIRS

sali-ar:
(intr.) to be protuberant, to jut out, project. (N.B. refers to form not movement; cf. spricar); -igar: to cause to jut out, to bring into prominence; (of fluids) throw up; -o, -ajo: jutting forth; protuberance, prominence, projection; (fort.) salient; -anta: projecting, prominent, salient. — EFIS

salicin-o:
(chem.) salicin.

salik-a:
Salic; -a lego: S. law. V. exp.: Ideo di heredado nur da e tra la maskuli; IV-581. — DEFIRS

salik-o:
(bot.) willow-tree (genus: Salix); -o ploranta: weeping w. — IL

salikari-o:
(bot.) spiked purple loose-strife; willow-weed (Lythrum salicaria). — F

salin-o:
salina: salt-works; (cf. sal-min-eyo). Def.: Loko ube produktesas la salo per vapigoro di la saloza aquo; IV-715. — DEFIS

saliv-o:
saliva, spittle; -ala: salivary; -ifar: to salivate (cf. sputar). V. exp.: vid. bavar. — EFIS

salmon-o:
(ichth.) salmon; -yuno: young s.; -ea: s. colo(u)red. — DEFIS

salol-o: (chem.) salol: phenyl salicylate.

salon-o: saloon: drawing-room, parlo(u)r; (cf. art-ala expoz-eyo). Def.: Chambro en apartamento destinita por aceptar vizitanti. — DEFRS

salp-o: (zool.) salp: barrel-shaped planktonic tunicate.

salpetr-o: saltpeter.— DEFR

salsifi-o:
(bot.) salsify, oyster-plant (Tragopogon porrifolius). — EF

salt-ar:
(intr.) to leap, jump, bound, hop (upward or forward), vault (ad, sur, trans, retro, ad-avane); -igar: to bounce (ulo): cause to leap or jump; -etar: to hop, skip, caper; -ope: by leaps and bounds; -anta, -et-anta: leaping, skipping; ri- -ar: to rebound; dorso- -o: (game) leapfrog; later-ala -o: side jump; turno- -o: summersault; trans-saltar: (tr.) to jump across; vento- -o: (nav.) a shift of wind. Ex.: Saltar trans (od, trans-saltar) fosato. Irar super ulo per un salto. Saltar al guturo di ulu. — EFIS

salubr-a:
(of places, things) salubrious, wholesome, healthy; -eso: salubrity; -igar, -eskar: to render, become s. V. exp.: Salubra tote ne esas sana; sana koncernas la personi o vivanti; salubra koncernas la kozi (klimato, lando, domo). Anke salubreso tote ne esas la saneso, ma la extera, fizikal kondicioni di la saneso. Ol anke ne esas la higieno, qua esas l’arto konservar la saneso. On povas (e devas) sequar la higieno precipue en ne-salubra lando; II-711, anke sana. — EFIS

salut-ar:
(tr.) to greet, salute (cf. salvear, reverencar); -ego: a very low bow, salaam; hearty salute; inter- -ar: to salute each other; -ar per espado, per manuo, per salveo: to salute with the sword, with the hand, by firing a salute; -ar per voco: to cheer. Def.: Donar ad ulu extera signo di respekto, politeso. — DEFIRS

salutar-a:
salutary, wholesome, beneficial. Def.: Qua risanigas o salvas; IV- 138. Ex.: Salutara legi, kura-civi manjaji. V. exp.: vid. sana. — EFIS

salv-ar:
(tr., also theol.) to save (from danger, peril, sickness), to deliver, rescue; to salvage (goods); -(ad)o: saving, salvation, salvaging; -eso: safety, salvation: state of being saved; -anta: saving, rescuing; -anto, -into, -onto: saver, deliverer; (theol.) Saviour; -ita: saved, safe (cf. sekura, integra); -o-letro: safe-conduct; -o-gardar: (tr.) to safeguard; -o-gard-ilo: (instr.) safeguard; -boyo: life-buoy. Ex.: Salvar urbo, vivo, sua honoro. — DEFIS

salve-ar:
(intr., milit.) to fire a salute, a volley (cf. salutar); -o, -o-pafado: salute, volley, salvo; aplaud- -o: (fig.) a round of applause. — DEFIRS

salvi-o:
(bot.) sage (-plant) (genus: Salvia).

sam-a:
same (cf. identa); -o: the s. thing; -eso: sameness; -e: also, likewise, ditto; sam-gent-ano, sam-civit-ano, sam-stat-ano, sam-urb-ano: fellow citizen; sam-genera: congenerous, of the same genus; -speca: of the same species; sam-ide-ano: fellow thinker; partisan of the same idea; sam-instanta: happening at the same moment, simultaneous (cf. sam-tempa); sam-land-ano: compatriot, fellow countryman; sam-matra: of the same mother; -patr(ul)a: consanguine; sam-patri-ano: compatriot, fellow counrtyman; (cf. sam-land-ano); sam-religi-ano: coreligionist; sam-spec-ano: a kindred or cognate species; sam-substanc-eso: consubstantiality; sam-temp-a: contemporaneous, simultaneous (cf. sam-instanta); sam-tempano: contemporary; sam-centra: concentric. Ex.: Il ne plus esas la sama homo. To esas la sama (od, to esas equivalanta). La sameso di la peizaji. Il pensas same kam me. La sama rezultajo. Me lektis la sama libro kam vu (la sama verko, ma en altra exemplero). La mediko probis desparigar samtempe la febro e la dursto. — DER

sambuk-o:
(bot.) elder (-tree) (genus: Sambucus). — IL

samovar-o:
samovar: Russian tea-urn. — DEFR

san-a:
(pr. of persons; fig. of things) healthy, well, hearty, hale, sound in health; (fig.) sound, wholesome; -a mente: sane; -eso: healthiness, good health; san-esar: to be well, to be all right, be in good health; -es-ala: sanitary, -igar: to make healthy, well; -eskar: to recover one’s health; -ig-iva: wholesome, hearty; korpe e mente -a: sound in body and mind; sana e sekura: well (or, safe) and sound; sana opiniono, kritiko: sane opinion, sound criticism; sana arboro: healthy tree. Def.: Qua havas konstituciono (od figurale, konstituceso) sen-defekta o koruptita (partikulare da morbo). V. exp.: Lo sana ne povas nocar; lo salubra reale bonfacas; lo salutara salvas de danjero, malajo. La ri-sanigeyo devas esar en salubra loko ube la kuracati povas recevar salubra (E. wholesome) manjaji e salutara remediili kande malada; kp. salubra. — EFIS

sanatori-o:
sanatorium. — DEFIRS

sancion-ar:
(tr.) to sanction: give validity to. Ex.: Sancionar lego. Ica vorto ne havas la sanciono di kustumo. — DEFIRS

sandal-o:
sandal: kind of shoe. — DEFIRS

sandarak-o:
sandarac(-gum) (Callitris quadrivalvis). — DEFIS

sandr-o: (ichth.) pike-perch (sasnder lucioperca).

sandwich-o: (1979) sandwich.

sang-o: blood; -ala: relating to b.: -oza: sanguinary: bloody, blood-stained; -ea: blood-colo(u)red; -atra: b.-like; -ifar: to bleed; -o-tir-ar: (tr.) to bleed (ulu); -o-sputar: to spit b.; -plena: full-blooded; -am-anta, -o-durst-anta: (fig.) bloodthirsty; -ifar de la nazo: to have nose bleed; -ifo, -o-formaco: sanguification; -ek-fluo: hemorrhage; sen- -a: bloodless. — EFIS

sanguin-a:
(of temperament) sanguine; -(ul)o: a s. person. — DEFIRS

sanguisug-o:
(worm) leech (Hirudo medicinalis); (fig.) bloodsucker, extortioner. — FIS

sani-o:
(med.) sanies. Def.: Materio sangoza e fetida, qua fluas de ula ulceri. V-349. — DEFIS

sanskrit-a (linguo) (la):
Sanskrit. — DEFIRS

sant-a:
holy, saintly; (of titles) saint; (cf. sakra); -(ul)o: a saint; -eso: holiness, sanctity, saintliness, saintship; -igar: to sanctify, make holy; -igo: sanctification; -eyo: a holy place; Santa Spirito: Holy Ghost; Santa Paulo: Saint Paul; santa patr-ulo: holy father; santa tribunalo: holy office (Inquisition); santa semano: holy week; santa vivo: a holy life; sant-aqu-uyo: holy-water basin, font. — DEFIS

santal-o: sandalwood. — DEFR

santolin-o: (bot.) lavender-cotton ground-cypress (Santolina). — FISL

santuari-o: sanctuary: that part of a church where the altar is placed; chancel; altar; (Jewish) holy of holies. (fig.) asylum, sacred refuge. Def.: Parto di kirko, di templo interdiktata a la profani; IV-582. — DEFIS

sap-ar: (tr., lit. and fig.) to sap, undermine; -(ad)o, -uro: undermining, (milit.) sap(ping); -isto: (milit.) sapper. Ex.: Sapar la fundamenti di basiono, di edifico. (fig.) Ta sistemo sapas la fundamenti di la Kristana religio. — DEFIRS

sapaju-o: (zool.) sapajou (monkey) (genus: Cebus). — DEFIR

sapon-o:
soap; -ala, -oza, -atra; soapy, saponaceous; -agar, -izar: to use s., put s. on, lather; -igar: (tr.), -ifar: (intr.) to saponify, make or produce soap; -if-erio: s.works; -bulo, -peco: a piece of soap. — EFIS

saponari-o: (bot.) soapwort (genus: Saponaria). — FISL

saponin-o: (chem.) saponin.

saponit-o: (min.) saponite.

sapor-ar: (intr.) to have a certain flavo(u)r (taste) (cf. gustar, savurar); -o: flavo(u)r, taste: (fig.) zest; -oza: tasty; succulent, palatable; sen- -a: tasteless; (fig. of things) insipid, flat, vapid; posa- -o: after-taste. Ex.: La biro saporas bitre. Ta karno esas sen-sapora. Ca vino havas pikema saporo. (fig.) Lua poemo havas nula saporo. — FIS

saprofit-o:
(bot.) saprophyte.

sapt-o: (of plants) sap. Def.: Suko quan la planti tiras ek la tero, e qua acensante en li nutras oli; II-705. — DE

saraband-o: saraband. Def.: Anciena danso, origine Hispana; IV-582. — DEFIRS

saracen-o: (bot.) buckwheat (Polygonum fagopyrum). — FIS

sarcel-o: (orni.) teal (-duck) (genus: Querquedula). — F

sardin-o: (ichth.) sardine (Sardinella pilchardus). — DEFIRS

sardonik-a: sardonic (laughter, etc.). — DEFIRS

sardonix-o: (min.) sardonyx. — DEFIS

sargas-o: sargass-o, -um, gulfweed (genus: Sargassum).

sarig-o: (zool.) opossum (Didelphys virginiana). — FI

sark-o: coffin, bier; -o-kapelo: mortuary chapel; -o-veturo: hearse. — De

sarkasm-o: sarcasm; -a, -atra, -ema: sarcastic; -em(ul)o: a sarcastic person. — DEFIRS

sarkin-o: (biol.) sarcina bacterium.

sarkl-ar: (tr.) to weed (flowers, a garden); -uro: weeding (done); -aji: weeds cut down (cf. mala herbo); -ilo: a weeding instrument. — FI

sarkofag-o: sarcophagus: stone coffin. — DEFIRS

sarkom-o: (med.) sarcoma. — DEFIS

sarkoplasm-o: (phys.) sarcoplasm.

sarment-o: (bot.) sarmentum: a running stem (as the strawberry plant); -oza: sarmentose: having slender prostrate branches or runners. — EFIS

sarsaparel-o: (bot.) sarsaparilla (genus: Smilax). — DEFIRS

sasafras-o: (2001) sassafras: North American tree (Sassafras albidum); the dried root bark used esp. as a diaphoretic or flavoring agent. — DEFIRS

sat(e): (adv.) enough, sufficiently (de); -o: a sufficiency; me havas sata (od, sat multa; sato de; suficanta) pekunio: I have enough money; vu parolis sate: you have spoken enough; savar sat multe: to know enough; sat bone: good enough. V.exp.: Sat, suficante: Me manjis sat multa pano, me ne suficante granda quanto por saturigar mea hungro. Ofte sat havas preske la signifiko di pasable, ma existas tamen kelka nuanco. «Homo, pasable granda, esas sat granda por esar vertuoza, ma ne suficante granda por atingar ula pomo pendanta de arboro.» — L

Satan-o: Satan; -ala, -atra: satanic. — DEFIRS

satelit-o: (astron. and fig.) satellite. Ex.: La luno esas satelito di ica planeto. — DEFIRS

satin-o: (fabric) satin; -atra pelo: a satin-like skin; -umar: to glaze: give to fabrics, paper, etc., a satin-like gloss; koton- -o: satinet. — DEFIR

satir-o: satire; -ala, -atra, -ema: satirical; -e mokar: to satirize (ulo), lampoon (ulu). — DEFIRS

satirus-o: (myth. and fig.) satyr. — DEFIRS

satisfac-ar: (tr.) to satisfy: to answer, fulfil (expectation, promise), to discharge (an obligation); to make amends, atone for (an offense, sin); -o: fulfilment, satisfaction (given), amends; -anta: satisfactory: making amends. V.exp.: On adoptas satisfacar en la sequanta uzo: «satisfacar devo, obligo, kontrato, promiso, kondiciono», ne en la senco di kontent-igar; III-666. — DEFIS

«satisfecit»: certificate of satisfaction, of good conduct. Def.: Atesto-letreto donata (quale da skolestro a lua skolano).

satrap-o: satrap; -io: (domain) satrapy. — DEFIRS

satur-ar: (tr.) to fill completely; to satiate, glut, saturate, surfeit; (chem.) to unite or dilute until no more can be received. Ex.: Saturar acido. Saturar sua kuriozeso. La saturo-punto varias segun la tempuraturo. Saturita per manjajo, per aquo, per doloro. V.exp.: vid. saciar. — DEFIS

saturdi-o:
Saturday. — E

saturnal-i:
(lit. and fig.) Saturnalia. — DEFIRS

sauc-o: (cook.) sauce; -uyo: s. holder, s. tureen; -izar: to put sauce on. — DEFIRS

sauri-o: saurian; (cf. lacerto). — DEFIS

sav-ar: (tr.) to know (by learning), to have a knowledge of; to be versed in; be aware of; to know how (to do); -igar: to cause (ulu) to know (ulo), to apprise, inform, instruct; -eskar: to become informed, apprised (pri); (-ad)o: knowing, learning; -ajo: knowledge: what is known; -ema: (of persons) desirous of learning, curious (cf. kurioza); -ar lektar e skribar: to know how to read and write; -ar plezar, facar: to know how to please, to make; -ar la intenci: to be sensible, be aware of the intentions. Ex.: Savar ulo, multo (pri). Me ne savas quon me devas dicar. Savar gramatiko, lingui, matematiko. V. exp. (1): Savar, konocar: Konocar esas havar l’ideo, la nociono pri ulu, ulo per sensi; savar esas pure mental ago. On konocas ulu per la nomo, la vizajo; on savas gramatiko. V. exp. (2): Sav-igar, informar, instruktar, avizar, notifikar, instruciono: Sav-igar esas la maxim generala vorto. Informar esas konocigar fakti; instruktar, konocigar teoriala o ciencala veraji; avizar donar ula praktikal informo, konsilo od impero; notifikar konocigar fakto per oficiala formo. Instruciono esas indiko di la metodo o maniero por uzar juste ed utile ula kozo, instrumento, kuracilo, e.c.; II-646. — FIS

savan-o: savanna: treeless plain or meadow; U.S.: prairie. — DEFIS

savori-o: (bot.) savory (satureia).

savur-ar: (tr.) to savo(u)r, relish (a dish); (fig.) to enjoy, delight in; -o: savo(u)r, relish. Def.: Gustar lente, kun atenco e plezuro. Ex.: Savurar ula vino, tasedo de kafeo. (fig.) Savurar ula plezuro, la honori. — EF

saxhorn-o: (mus.) saxhorn. — DEF

saxifrag-o: (bot.) saxifrage (genus: Saxifraga). — EFISL

saxofon-o:
(mus.) saxophone. — DEFIS

sbir-o: sbirro: a former member of Italian Police.

se: (conj.) if (followed frequently, but not necessarily by conditional); -ne: if not or else, otherwise; -nur: if only, provided that. Ex.: Se me povus, me venus. To esas importanta, se vera. Obediez; se ne, gardez! Me facos to, se nur il venos. — FIS

seanc-ar*: (intr.) to be assembled and remain so until all points in an agenda have been dealt with. — EF

seb-o: tallow or tallow-like substance, suet; (cf. stearino); -oza: tallowy; -if-anta: sebaceous; -o-glando: sebaceous gland; -grano, -pustulo: (med.) black pimple (on skin); okul- -o: eye mucus, -rheum. — eIS

secion-o: (geom.) section (cf. segmento). V. exp.: Seciono signifikas la figuro (plana) obtenita «sekante» objekto per plano (ex. la koniki esas konala secioni); kun ta senco ol uzesas tre ofte en geometrio e cetera matematika cienci; IV-351; V-660. — DEFIRS

sed-o: bottom, backside: hinder part or seat of body; (cf. gropo, rumpo, lumbo); -o-balno: sitz-bath. V. exp.: Sedo esas la ordinara vorto quan on uzas exemple en gimnastiko: «la sedo maxim posible adsupre!» kulo povas semblar shokanta; gluteo esas anatomiala.

sedentari-a: sedentary (life, profession). Def.: Qua restas konstante sidanta, pro mestiero; per extenso, la mestiero anke dicesas «sedentaria»; III-207. — DEFIS

sedici-ar:
(intr.) to (cause a) mutiny, to riot (cf. rebel-eskar, revoltar); populacho -oza: a riotous mob; -ema soldati: seditious (riotous) soldiers; -ema mento: seditious mind. Def.: Facar mikra revolto. — EFIS

sediment-o: sediment, grounds, dregs, lees; -ala, -atra: sedimentary; -oza: feculent, turbid, muddy. — DEFIS

sedukt-ar:
(tr.) to seduce (chastity); to lead astray (from the path of rectitude, duty); to beguile, entice (cf. lurar, trompar, facinar, misduktar, koruptar, subornar); -o, -eso: seduction; -anta, -iva: enticing, seductive, captivating, engaging, winning; -anto, -ero: seducer (cf. atrakt-iva). Ex.: Seduktar puerino. La charmo di lua manieri seduktas me. — EFIS

sedum-o: (2001) sedum, stonecrop (genus Sedum). — DEFIRS

seg-ar: (tr.) to (cut with a) saw: -ilo: a saw; -il-lamo: blade of a s.; trapar- -ar: to s. through (ulo); cirklo- -ilo: circular s.; rubando- -ilo: ribbon-, band-s.; -erio: sawmill; -isto: sawyer; -pulvero: sawdust. — DI

segl-o: sail (of a ship); -aro: sails (of a ship); set of s.s.; -irar: to s.: go sailing before the wind; -o-navo: sailing vessel; -if-isto: sailmaker; hisar la -i: to set, make sails. — DE

segment-o: section, segment; -igar: to segment: divide into sections; -ig-ado, -uro: segmentation; cirklo-segmento: segment of a circle; (cf. seciono). V. exp.: Segmento signifikas ula determinita parto di objekto longa, lineatra, quan on «sekas» o dividas segun lua longeso: segmento di voyo, di fervoyo (ex. inter du stacioni), di rivero, di kanalo (inter du sluzi), di filo telegrafala (inter du stacioni o posteni); IV-351; V-660. — DEFIRS

segregac-ar: (tr.) to segregate. — DEFIS

segun: (prep.) according to, agreeably to, in conformity with; pursuant to, after; segun ke: (conj.) according to whether; -quante: as far as, in so far; -vola: optional; -vole: at will. Ex.: Segun vua deskripto, vua rekomendo, mea opiniono. Traktar ulu segun lua merito. Evangelio segun St. Johano. Ni diskutos to, nur segun quante ol povas kontributar a nia projeto. Segun ke vu esos richo o mizeroza, la homi judikos vu kom bona o kom mala. — IS

seid-o: fanatical partisan, zealot. Def.: Fanatiko volunte kriminas pro religiala zelo, e.c. — DFIS

seif-o*: strongbox, safe.

sejorn-ar: (intr.) sojourn, remain for some time at a place (cf. restar). — EF

sek-ar: (tr.) to make a surface cut in; cut partially through; divide into sections; -uro: (surg.) section; -anto: (geom.) secant; -vund-uro: gash, cut, slash. V. exp.: vid. tranchar. — EFIS

sekal-o: (bot.) rye (Secale cereale); -grano: a grain of rye; -pano: rye-bread. — FIL

sekin-o: (coin) sequin. — DEFIRS

sekond-ar: (tr.) to second, back (up) support (a motion, proposition); -anto: seconder, backer. — DEFIR

sekrec-ar: (tr., biol.) to secrete; -(ad)o: -uro: secretion; -anta, -ala: secreting, secretory. — DEFIS

sekret-a: secret, not made known, not revealed, clandestine (cf. cel-ita, privata); -ajo: a secret (cf. misterio); -eso: secrecy; -e: secretly, in secret. V.exp.: vid. arkana. — DEFIRS

sekretari-o: (person) secretary. — DEFIRS

sekt-o:
sect; -ano: member of a s., sectarian. — DEFIRS

sektor-o: (geom., milit.) sector. — DEFIRS

sekular-a: secular, worldly; (cf. laika); -(ul)o: a secular priest (not a regular); -a klerikaro: secular clergy: clergy not bound by monastic vows; -igar: to secularize. — DEFIRS

sekund-o: second: 60th of a minute of time or of an arc. — DEFIRS

sekundara: secondary: indicates relationship as used in geology, electricity, public school, medicine, etc., compared with primara, terciara; (cf. acesora: duesma-grada; min grava). — DEFIS

sekur-a: safe, secure: out of danger, without danger; -eso: safety, security; -esar: to be s., -igar: to make safe, secure (cf. cert-igar); -es-polico: detective police; -es-valvo: valve; Ex.: Pozar ulo en sekura loko. Voyajar sekure (od, en sekureso). Sekurigar sua havajo. — EFIS

sel-o: saddle; -eto, -kusen-eto: s.-pad (as for cart-horse); -izar: to s., -if-erio: saddlery (where saddles are made; cf. harnes-if-erio); -kavalo: s.-horse; hom-in-selo: side-s., lady’s s.; -arko: s. bow; sen-sel-igar: to unsaddle. — FIS

selakt-o: whey. — L

selekt-ar:
(tr.) to select, choose, pick out (cf. elektar, preferar, asortar); -o: selection, option; -ajo: what is chosen, choice. Ex.: Selektar sua amiki. Selektar la maxim bona cerizi. Naturala selektado. — DEFRS

seleni-o: (chem.) selenium. — DEFIRS

selenografi-o: selenography. — DEFIRS

«selfmademan»:
self-made man.

sem-ar: (tr., lit. and fig.) to sow, strew, scatter (seed for growth); -ajo: what is sown; seed. — FIRS

semafor-o:
semaphore. — DEFIRS

seman-o: week; omna- -e, singla- -e: every w., each w., weekly; ca- -e: this week; santa -o: Holy Week; mi- -a: twice a w., every half w.; du- -a: bi-weekly, every two weeks. — FIS

semantik-o: semantics, semasiology. Def.: Cienco di la signifiki (di vorti), di lia evoluciono (parto di la linguistiko); IV-81. — DEFIRS

sembl-ar: (intr.) to seem, appear (to be), look (like) (cf. aspektar, simular); -o: appearance, semblance, external aspect, outward show; -anta: seeming; -o falsa: false show, pretence; -ante: apparently (cf. kred-ebla). Ex.: Ca vino semblas a me esar mala. Il semblas dormar. Semblo di amikeso. — EFI

semestr-o: semester: six months period (of study) (cf. trimestro). — DEFIRS

Sem-ido: Semite; -id-ala: Semitic. — DEFRS

semin-o, -i: seed (cf. spermo, grano); -izar: to sow (a field, etc.).

seminar-o: (2001) seminar. — DEFIRS

seminari-o: (ecclesiastical) seminary; -ano: seminarist, theological student. — DEFIRS

semiotik-o: (2001) semiotics (study of signs and symbols). — DEFIRS

semol-o: semolina. — EFIS

semperviv-o:
(bot.) houseleek (Sempervivum [tectorum]). — L

sempr-e: (adv.) always (cf. perpetue, sen-cese); por sempre: for ever, evermore; -a: perpetual. Ex.: On ne esas sempre felica. Matine me levas me sempre tre frue. — IS

sen: (prep.) without, not with, free from: indicates absence, privation, exclusion, destitution; (Note: Sen is often compounded with verbs in place of des-, ne- to signify deprivation, absence: des-esperar: to despair; sen-esper-igar: to deprive (ulu) of hope; ne-esperanta: unhopeful; sen-espera: hopeless. Note that in the adjective form the suffix -a is used, not -ala, -oza, etc. sen-esper-a, not sen-esper-oza, sen-viva korpo: a lifeless body; sen-falio: without fail, unfailingly; sen to: without that, otherwise; sen ke: (conj.) without (that), unless: me ne povas parolar, sen ke il inter-ruptas me: I cannot speak without his interrupting me. Ant.: kun. — FIS

senat-o: senate; -ano: senator; -ala, -an-ala: senatorial. — DEFIRS

senatuskonsult-o: senatys-consultum: decree of the (Roman) senate.

sen-brach(ul)o: (lit.: person without breeches) (French hist.) sans-culotte.

senc-o: sense, meaning; du-senc-eso, -ajo: double meaning; plur-senca vorto: a word with various significations; ne-justa senco: improper sense; sen-senca: senseless; sen-senc-ajo: a senseless thing or act; nonsense. V.exp.: Senco, signifiko: La senco di ula vorto konsistas en la diversa idei, quin ol expresas od implikas; lua signifiko konsistas en la diversa objekti, a qui ol esas aplikebla. Ex.: La vorti «Blanka Monto» havas senco aplikebla a omna blanka monti; ma lua signifiko restriktesas ad un monto. Simile la Glacial Oceano, la Nigra e la Reda Maro, e.c. La vorti «la maxim granda de la nombri» havas senco komprenebla e mem klara, ma korespondas a nula objekto; ol «signifikas nulo;» (Further discussion of these synonyms may be found in VI-80-81). — EFIS

sen-ceremoni-a: unceremonious; -eso: bluntness, off-handedness.

sen-ces-a: continual, incessant: constantly renewed or recurring (cf. kontinua).

send-ar: (tr.) to send: cause to go, dispatch, forward; -ajo: what is sent; parcel (of goods); -ato: person sent; messenger, emissary; -ato diplomac-ala: envoy.

sen-defekt-a:
faultless.

sen-domaj-a: undamaged, intact, in good condition (cf. ne-tush-ita, ne-lez-ita).

sen-dubit-a, -e: undoubted(ly), assuredly (cf. certe).

seneci-o: (bot.) groundsel (genus: Senecio). — FL

seneshal-o: (title) seneschal. — DEFIRS

sen-flor-eskar: to lose, shed its blossom.

sen-har-a: (of persons) bald: completely without hair (cf. kalva).

sen-harnes-igar: (= des-harnes-izar): to unharness.

sen-hered-ant-eso: (jur.) escheat: failure of heritable heirs by which property reverts to the State.

sen-honor-a: unhono(u)red: without hono(u)r: -igar: to dishono(u)r, deprive (ulu) of hono(u)r.

senil-a: (med.) senile; -eso: senility. — DEFIS

sen-intenc-e: unintentionally.

senior-a; -o, -ulo, -ino: senior, elder, eldest; -eso: seniority, eldership; -yuro: birthright; (jur.) primogeniture. — DEF

sen-jen-a: unconstrained; free and easy.

sen-kap-a: headless, acephalus; -igar: to lop the head from, decapitate.

sen-karn-igar: to strip the meat from.

sen-kern-igar: to stone (peaches, etc.); to core (apples, etc.).

sen-kortic-igar: to peel, strip (of its bark).

sen-kulp-a: guiltless, faultless (cf. inocenta).

sen-kuraj-a: timid; -igar: to dishearten, discourage, demoralize.

sen-makul-a: unblemished, unspotted, spotless, immaculate.

sen-mobl-igar: to strip of furniture; -ig-ita: unfurnished.

sen-mov-a: motionless.

«senna»: (bot., pharm.) senna.

sen-pag-a: gratuitous (cf. gratuita); -e: gratis, free of charge.

sen-partis-a: impartial; -eso: impartiality.

sen-pil-igar: (tr.) to flay, skin (cf. exkoriar).

sen-pen-a, -e: without difficulty.

sen-pel-igar: to depilate, remove the hair, the bristles from; -eskar: to lose (shed) the hair (of animals;) -ig-iva, -ivo: depilatory.

sen-plum-igar: to pluck feathers from.

sen-polv-igar: to dust; -ig-ilo: duster (cf. plum-fasko).

sen-pudor-a: immodest, wanton: without (womanly) modesty; -ajo: immodest act (cf. sordid-ajo, laciv-ajo).

sen-reflekt-a: thoughtless, heedless, giddy.

sen-religi-a: irreligious (cf. kontre-religia; des-pia).

sens-o: sense: one of the five physical senses or faculties; -ala: (physiol.) sensorial, sensory; -ala plezuri: pleasures of the senses; -al-ismo: (philos.) sensualism: sensationalism, the doctrine that all knowledge originates in sensation (cf. sensual-ismo). — DEFIRS

sensacion-o*: sensation: excited interest or feeling (cf. sento); -ala: sensational (cf. impres-anta, -iva). Ex.: Ula novaji ofte produktas sensaciono. Sensacionala jurnali, libri. — DEFIS

sen-shel-igar: to shell, peel, hull, husk.

sen-senc-a: senseless, meaningless; -ajo: nonsense.

sensitiv-o: (bot.) sensitive plant.

sensor-o*: (scient.) sensor.

sen-sorg-a: careless.

sensual-a: sensual: devoted to the gratification of the senses; voluptuous; -(ul)o, -isto: s. person; sensualist; -ismo: sensualism: sensuality (cf. sens-al-ismo). Def.: Devota a sensala plezuri; agreabla a la sensi. — EFIS

sen-suci-a: free from care or concern.

sent-ar: (tr.) to feel (a sensation) (cf. konciar, perceptar, flarar, odorar, saporar); -(ad)o: feeling, sensation; -ebla: sensible: which is felt; -eble: sensibly: perceptibly; -iva, -ema: sensitive, impressionable, susceptible; -iveso, -emeso: sensitiveness, sensibility, susceptibility; -eyo, sento-centro: sensorium, place of sensation; -iv-igar: to make sensitive; me sentas me varma (od, kom varma): I feel warm (cf. IV-691). Ex.: Sentar koldeso, hungro, dursto, doloro. — EFIS

sen-tar-e, -a: net (weight).

sentenc-o: sentence: maxim: short saying containing an axiom, saw (cf. proverbo). (N.B. This is not the E. grammatical «sentence»; cf. frazo); -ema, -atra: sententious, terse, pithy. Ex.: Sentenco da Seneca. Stilo, maniero sentencala. — DEFIRS

sentiment-o: sentiment, mental feeling, emotion (opp. to physical sensation), -ala: (of things) sentimental; -ema; -emo: sentimental (person); -em-eso: sentimentality. Ex.: La sentimento di lo bela. Me havas nula sentimento ecepte la tristeso. Sentimento di odio. Sentimentala tono, diskurso. Yunino sentimentema. — EFIRS

sen-tim-a: fearless, without dread.

sentinel-o: (milit.) sentinel, sentry; -esar: to be on s. watch (cf. facionar); -igar: to post (ulu) as a s. — EFIS

sen-valor-a: worthless; -igar: to render worthless; (of money) to demonetize.

sen-viv-a: lifeless.

sen-voc-a: (in phonetics) surd, mute.

sep: seven; -esma: seventh; -imo: one-seventh; -yara: septennial; -a-dek: seventy; -a-dek-yar-a, -(ul)o: septuagenar-y, -ian; (for other derivative forms, cf. du). — DEFIS

sepal-o: (bot.) sepal. — EFIS

separ-ar: (tr.) to separate, part, divide, (ulo, de ulo); (su) to secede, withdraw; -o, -eso: separation, severing, partition; secession; -ilo: anything which separates: a partition; -ajo: that which is separated, a s. part; -anta, -iva: separating, seceding, separative: -ate: separately; -anto, -emo: secessionist, separatist; -ebla: separable; -o-lineo: line of demarcation. Ex.: Separar la kapo de la korpo. Ta rivero separas ca du provinci. Separar su de ula societo. Lia diversa interesti separas li. Ni judikos separate la du kozi. — DEFIRS

sepi-o: (ichth.) sepia, cuttlefish (genus: Sepia); -ajo: sepia (pigment); -desegn-o, -uro: s. drawing. — DEFIRS

sept-a: (med.) septic: causing putrifaction; -eso: sepsis. — DEFIRS

septembr-o: September. — DEFIRS

septet-o: (mus.) septet (voices or instruments). — DEFRS

septicemi-o: (2001) blood poisoning, septicemia. — DEFIRS

septilion-o: septillion, 1042.

septim-o: (mus.) seventh chord.

septua-: (scient. prefix) having seven...

septuagesim-o: (relig.) the ninth Sunday before Easter.

sepult-ar: (tr.) to entomb, bury (a dead body) (cf. en-ter-igar); -eskar: to prepare for burial, lay out (a body); -o, -uro: sepulture, burial (cf. tombo); -eyo: place of burial; -o-tuko: shroud, winding sheet. — EFIS

sequ-ar: (tr.) to follow, go or come after, go next, to be or come next; -o: sequence, continuation; -anto: a follower; -anta: next, subsequent; -ant-aro: retinue, train, attendants, suite; -ant-ajo: sequel, continuation: that which follows; -ante: in pursuance, in conformity; -e: then, (here)after; -inda: worth following; -enda: which must be followed. Ex.: Il marchis adavane e la altri sequis il. Sequar ulu per la okulo. Sequar voyo, metodo. La sequantaro venis dop (od, sequante) il. Sequo di lud-karti. Il remarkis sua eroro erste ye la sequante matino. Exemplo sequinda. Voyo sequenda. — EFIS

sequenci-o: (R.C. liturgy) sequence: a certain hymn sung during mass.

sequestr-ar: (tr., jur.) to sequester; -(ad)o, -eso: sequestration; -ajo: what is sequestered. Ex.: Sequestrar la havajo di ulu. — DEFIRS

sequoy-o: (bot.) sequoia: red-wood tree (Sequoia gigantea; Sequoia sempervirens). — EF

ser-o: (physiol.) serum: thin, transparent part of blood (cf. serumo); -oza: serous: (fig.) watery; lakto- -o: whey: thin part of milk (cf. selakto). — DEFIRS

seraf-o: seraph; -i: seraphim; -ala: seraphic. — DEFIS

seray-o:
seraglio. — DEFIRS

serbatan-o:
air-cane; pea-shooter. Def.: Longa tubo uzata por lansar, per suflado, mikra projektili. — FIS

serch-ar:
(tr.) to seek, look for, search for, be in quest of; -(ad)o: search(ing); -anto, -ero,-emo: seeker, searcher; tra- -ar: to s. through, to rummage. Ex.: Serchar oro. Serchar vorto en vorto-libro. Serchar lojeyo. Il serchas oportunajo por ganar la pekunio. — EFI

seren-a:
(phys., mental) serene, placid; -eso: serenity. Ex.: Mieno, fronto, tempo serena. — EFIS

serenad-o:
serenade; -ar, donar -o: to serenade (ulu). — DEFIRS

«serenissimus»:
(title) His Serene Highness.

serfo, -ulo, -ino:
serfdom. — EFIS

seri-o:
series, row, file; continued succession, order or course (cf. inter-sequo, sucedo); -e: in s., in rows. Ex.: Serio di personi, di objekti, di questioni, di soni. — DEFIRS

serin-o:
(orni.) serin: canary (-finch). — EF

sering-o:
(bot.) syringa (genus: Philadelphus). — EFIS

serioz-a:
serious, sedate, grave; not lively or amusing; -(ul)o: a s. person; -eso: seriousness. Ex.: Serioza karaktero, konverso, morbo. Parolar serioze. Konsiderar ulu, ulo kom serioza. V. exp.: vid. grava. Ant.: vivaca, gaya, amuz-anta, rid-ig-anta, komika, jokema. — EFIRS

serj-o:
(fabric) serge. — DEF

serjent-o:
sergeant. — DEFIRS

seron-o:
(com.) seroon: a bale of tea, indigo, etc. wrapped in hide. — DEFIS

serp-o:
bill-hook, pruning-bill; -eto: pruning-, garden-knife. Def.: Speco di kultelo larja kun pinto kurvigita (en la sama plano), qua servas por taliar la arbori, tranchar la branchi; VI-539. — F

serpent-o:
serpent, snake; -ala: relating to s.; -atra, -o-forma: serpentine; -o-fuzeo: Pharaoh’s serpent: a species of fireworks; -o-korno: serpent: a former musical instrument; -o-tubo: a winding tube. — DEFIS

serpentin-o:
(min.) serpentine. — DEFIS

serpol-o:
(bot.) serpolet: wild thyme (Thymus Serpillum). — EFIS

serum-o:
(medicinal, artificial) serum (cf. sero); -kuraco: s. therapy. — DEFIS

serur-o:
lock; -(if)isto: locksmith; -hoko: l. catch; resort- -o: spring l.; sekur-es- -o: safety l. Ex.: Klef-agar la seruro do pordo. — FIS

serv-ar:
(tr., intr.) to be of service to, to serve (as an assistant or domestic); to be in the service (of), to serve (customers), to tend (a machine); -(ad)o: serving, service (cf. servico); -anto, -isto: servant, servitor; -ist-ino: maid servant; -ist-aro: (collect.) domestics, servants; -ema: obliging, willing to serve; -em-eso: obligingness; -o tablo: serving table; vua -anto: (polite phrase) your servant; -achar: to dance attendance on (ulu), -em-acha: servile. Ex.: Servar ulu. Esar servisto di ulu. Facar servo ad ulu. Me esas pronta servar vu. Administrala servado. Servar ulu kom sekretario. Servar kliento, mashino. — DEFIS

serval-o:
(zool.) serval: African wildcat (Felis serval). — DEFRS

servi-ar*: (tr.) render a service, procure a benefit (ad ulu), generally without pay, by one's private intervention.

servic-o: (table dishes) service; -o kristala, arjenta, porcelana: crystal, silver, china service (cf. disho). — DEFIRS

servitud-o: (jur.) servitude: liability of property to rights of other persons, as a right of way over it. Def.: Obligo pri domeno relate altra domeno; III-606.

sesg-ar:
(tr.) to cut (ulo) in the form of a crescent; (of dresses) to cut low; (cf. dekoltar). Ex.: Sesgar korsajo. — S

sesion-o:
session, sittings (of a deliberative body, as a court, legislature, etc.). V. exp.: Duro dum qua deliberanta korporaciono kunsidas kontinue. To ne esas kunsido, qua indikas la duro di singla kunveno; III-332. — DEFIRS

seton-o:
(surg., vet.) seton. — EFI

sever-a:
severe, hard, stern, harsh, strict (cf. austera); -eso, -ajo: (quality, act) severity; (of weather) inclemency. Def.: Rigoroza; ne-indulgema. Ex.: Severa judiciisto, lego, morbo, klimato. Ant.: indulgema. — EFIS

sevici-ar: (intr., juris. ad) to act with sevitia: domestic cruelty.

sexa-: (scient. prefix) having six...

sexagesim-o: (rel.) Sexagesima (Sunday).

sext-o:
(mus.) sixth: an interval of six diatonic degrees. — DEFIRS

sextant-o:
sextant. — DEFIRS

sextet-o:
(mus.) sextet. — DEFIRS

sextilion-o:
sextillion, 1036.

sextik-o*:
(math.) sextic. — DEFIRS

sexu-o:
sex; -ala: sexual; -al-eso: sexuality: state of being distinguished by s.; sen- -a: sexless. Ex.: La sexuo maskala, femina. Personi di la du sexui. Sexuala diferi, orgami. — DEFIRS

sezam-o:
(bot.) sesame (Sesamum). — DEFIRS

sezon-o:
season (of the year; cf. okaziono, oportun-ajo); -ala: seasonable (weather, etc.); -lugumi: vegetables in s.; pluv- -o: rainy s.; stagno- -o: dull, dead s.; posa -o: latter part of the s.; (fig.) autumn. — DEFR

sfacel-o:
(med.) sphacelus: gangrene.

sfenoid-o:
(geom., anat.) sphenoid(al); -o, -osto: s. bone).

sfer-o:
(geom.) sphere, globe; -a, -ala, -atra: spherical. V. exp.: vid. balono. — DEFIS

sferoid-o:
(geom.) spheroid. — DEFIS

sferometr-o:
spherometer. — DEFIRS

sfinter-o:
(anat.) sphincter (muscle). — DEFIS

sfinx-o:
(also fig.) sphinx. — DEFIRS

sh-atra: (phon., pronounced "she-atra") pronouncing words with a palatal whistle.

«sha»: (title) shah.

shablon-o:
pattern (cf. modelo); (fig.) routine (cf. rutino). Def.: Plana figuro, qua indikas la konturi sugun qui on devas taliar stofo; anke utila metafore (por expresar sklavatra kopiado); IV-447 — DR

shabrak-o:
shabrak: ornamented saddle cloth, caparison. Def.: Tegilo ornita di kavalo; VI-75. — DEFRS

shaft-o:
shaft, staff: long handle, as of a lance; stock (of a gun); shank (of a tool); (cf. shakto). — DE

shagrin-o:
shagreen (leather). — DEFI

shak-o:
chessman; -ludo: chess (the game); -ludar: to play c.; -planko: chess board; -ar: to give a check (to the king). V. exp.: Por la shako-ludo on adoptas: damo, episkopo, kavalo, turmo, e la expresuri: soldati, oficeri, roquar, shakar la rejo; VI-116; for other descriptive terms, cf. VI-299. — DFIRS

shakal-o:
(zool.) jackal (Canis aureus). — DEFIRS

shakt-o:
shaft, pit (of a mine or quarry). — De

shal-o:
shawl. — DEFIRS

shalm-o:
pipe or tube of straw, reed, glass, or metal (as used for sucking up liquids); (chemist’s) blowpipe; shawm: an acient reed instrument; shepherd’s pipe; (bot.) hollow sterm (of a plant). — DEF

shalot-o:
(bot.) shallot: an onion-like plant (Allium ascalonicum). — DEFRS

shalup-o:
(sailing-) launch, long boat or cutter propelled by sails or oars; shallop; vapor- -o: steam launch. — DEFIRS

sham-ar:
(intr.) to be ashamed (pri ulo); -igar: to s. (ulu), to make (ulu) feel ashamed, to humiliate, mortify; (cf. pudoro); -o: shame, disgrace; -inda, -ig-anta: shameful, disgraceful, foul, dirty (word, act); -ind-ajo: act of vileness; -ind-eso: turpitude, baseness, vileness, shamefulness; sen- -a: shameless; sen- -eso: shamelessness, effrontery. Def.: Shamo: perturbo di la koncienco, igita da deshonoro, ridindajo, e.c. Ex.: Il devos balde shamar pri sua mala agado. Vua diligenteso shamigas me. Il esas shamoza pri sua ofenso. Shaminda (od, sham-iganta) konduto, vorti, agi. — DEF

shamot-o:
fire-clay. — D

shampun-ar:
(tr.) to shampoo. — DEF

shancel-ar:
(intr.) to stagger, totter, waver, reel, be unstready, shake; -igar: to cause something to totter; (fig.) to shake (an opinion, decision, etc.); -o: reeling, tottering. — F

shapk-o:
fur cap. Def.: Furizita kap-vesto. — R

sharad-o:
charade. — DEFIRS

shark-o:
(ichth.) shark. V. exp.: Sharko esas la nomo vulgara di Squalus carcharius; squalo esas la nomo di la genero Squalus. — E

sharlatan-o:
charlatan, quack-doctor, mountebank; -eso: charlatanism, quackery. Def.: Venderacho di drogi, dent-extirpero, e.c. en publika loki; (fig.) ne-savanta mediko qua explotas la publiko. — DEFIRS

sharp-o:
scarf (for shoulders); sash (as insignia or ornament); (surg.) sling; (cf. zono); havar la brakio en -o: to have the arm in a sling; dentala -o: lace scarf. — DFIR

sharpi-o:
(surg.) lint. — DFR

sheik-o:
sheik. Def.: Chefo di Araba tribuo; III-603. — DEFIRS

shekl-o:
(tech.) shackle. Def.: Masho di kateno qua havas altra formo kam la cetera mashi e servas por specala skopo (fixigo di la hoko, di siteli en dragilo, e.c.); III-85-6. — DE

shel-o:
shell, peel, rind, hull: hard outer case of eggs, nuts, etc.; (cf. skalio, bruo); ovo- -o: egg-shell; sen-shel-a pizi: shelled peas; sen-shel-igar: to shell, peel: onyon-shelo: onion skin. — DER

shibr-o:
(tech.) slide-valve (in steam engine); sluice-gate (for water). Def.: Valvo-pordo qua agas glitante en sua plano tale ke ol obstruktas (parte o tote) vaporo en la vapor-mashino, aqua en kanalo, tubo, e.c.; III-293. — D

shifon-o:
rag: piece of cloth torn off (cf. rago); scrap (of paper, etc.); -isto: rag-picker; -uyo: rag-, scrap-holder. — EFIR

shikan-ar:
(intr.) to chicane: to pettifog, quibble, prolong a contest by shifts, subterfuges; (tr.) to quibble over something or with somebody about something; to wrangle (without motive); -o, -em-eso: chicanery, sharp practice, pettifogging, quibbling. — DEF

shild-o:
shield, buckler (defensive armo(u)r) (cf. skudo). — DE

shindol-o:
(wooden-) shingle; (cf. tegulo). — DFS

shink-o:
ham: thigh of a hog prepared for food; -eto: small h.; knuckle of h. — D

shirm-ar:
(tr.) to shelter, shield, screen: -ar su: to take shelter; -anta, -iva: sheltering; -ilo, -ivo: shelter, cover; (fig.) refuge; -tekto: penthouse, lean-to (cf. hangaro). Ex.: Parasuno shirmas el. Shirmata da la foliaro kontre la vento e suno. — D

«shirting»:
(com.) shirting: cloth suitable for making shirts.

shok-ar:
(tr., intr.) to shock: (physical) to strike on or against, dash against; give a shock to, clash with; (mental) to offend, be offensive to; (cf. kolizionar); -o: shock, clashing, concussion; -anta: shocking, clashing; -ar glasi: to hobnob; touch glasses; retro- -o: counter-shock, -blow; shoko-pulsar: (tr.) to hustle, jostle (ulu). Ex.: La navo shokas rifo. Du inter-shokanta korpi produktas sono. Nulo quon vu dicas povas shokar me. La shoko renversis il. Vorto, konduto shokanta. — DEFS

shov-ar:
(tr.) to shove or push (ulu, ulo) along; (cf. pulsar, glitar). Ex.: Shovar ulu sur glacio. Shovar su tra turbo. Shovar botelo sur tablo, batelo al aquo. — DE

shovel-o: shovel; -agar: (tr.) to s.; -edo: shovelful. — DE

shovin-a: Chauvinistic, blindly patriotic.

shovin-ismo: chauvinism; jingoism; -ista, -isto: chauvinist(ic); jingo(istic). — DEF

shrapnel-o: shrapnel. — DEFR

shu-o: (low-) shoe for the human feet); -o alta: high s. (which extends above tha ankles; cf. bot-eto); -talono: heel of a s.; -reparar: to cobble; -if-erio: manufactory; -vend-eyo: s.-selling shop; -met-ilo: s.-horn; -form-iz-ilo: s.-tree; sen-shu-igar: to pull off shoes; shu-net-ig-isto: s.-cleaner, -black. V. exp.: Shuo ne esas boto: shuo esas basa pedvesto, sub la maleoli; IV-101. — DE

shultr-o: shoulder; -i larja: broad s.s; -o-pozar (fusilo): to shoulder (a gun); -o-pulsar, -shovar: to push or shove with the s.s.; levar la -i: lift, shrug the s.s; -o-peco: s.piece (cf. epoleto). — DE

shunt-o: (elec.) shunt. — DEFIRS

shut!: (interjection) Sh!

shutr-o: blind, shutter (as for window); -o fald-ebla: folding s. — E

si: (mus.) si: seventh note of diatonic scale.

sibarito: sybarite.

sibarit-a: sybaritic. — DEFIRS

sibil-o: sibyl; -ala, -atra: sibylline. — DEFIRS

sid-ar: (intr.) to sit , be seated (of persons, assemblies, courts); (fig.) to lie, reside (of things); -igar: to seat (ulu); -eskar: to take one’s seat, sit down; -ilo: (furniture) seat; bi-sid-ilo: seat for two persons; -eyo: place where one sits; seat, bench (as of a court); see (of a bishop); (fig.) residence; santa eyo: Holy See; -o-balno: hip-bath; -o-posturo: manner of sitting; kunsidar: to sit together, meet (of several persons). Ex.: Me sideskas an la tablo. Me sidigas gasti an mea tablo, pose me sideskas. La korto di kasaco sidas en Paris. Paris esas la sideyo di la guvernerio. (fig.) La sideyo di morbo. — DEIR

siej-ar: (tr.) to besiege, lay s. to, invest (ulu, ulo); -o-stando: condition of s.; cesar la -o: to raise the s. — EFIS

siena-tero: (earth, pigment) (terra) sienna.

siest-ar: (intr.) to have a nap; -o: siesta, midday or afternoon nap. — DEFIS

sifilis-o: (med.) syphilis; -ala: syphilitic: relating to s.; -ika, -iko: syphilitic (person). — DEFIRS

sifl-ar: (tr., intr.) to whistle: make a shrill sound ordinarily musical; (fig., med.) to wheeze; to whiz; -ilo: a whistle; -anto, -ero: a whistler, one who whistles. Def.: Facar la sono (ordinare) muzikala, kun alteso definita, quan produktas sifl-ilo, t.e. orgen-tubo kurta e konseque akuta, o la sifilo di lokomotivo; VII-207. Ex.: Siflar a hundo. Siflar ario. La respirado di asmatiko siflas. (fig.) La vento, flecho, paf-kuglo (ulfoye) siflas. V. exp.: vid. sisar. — F

sifon-o: siphon; -agar: to s. — DEFIRS

sigar-o: cigar; -eto: cigarette; -if-isto: c. maker; -uyo: c. holder; -tranch-ilo: c. cutter. — DEFIRS

sigilari-o:
sigillaria: a genus of fossil trees. — DEFIRS

sigl-ar: (tr.) to seal, affix a s., as a mark of authenticity, to a document, letter, bottle, etc.; (fig.) to seal up: close for security, as a closing a letter by means of gum or wafer; (cf. masonar); -(ad)o: (act) sealing; -uro: (imprint) seal; -ilo: (instr.) seal; -anto, -isto: sealer: -o-vaxo: sealing wax; -o-ringo: signet ring. — DIS

sign-o: (natural or artificial) sign, mark (cf. indik-ajo, indico); -izar: to put a s. on (ulo, ulu); -ifar: to make signs; tempo- -o: sign of the times; facar kruco- -o: to make the s. of the cross; kruco-sign-izar su: to cross oneself; puntizo- -o: s. of punctuation; kapo- -o: nod or shake of the head; zodiak-ala -o: s. of the zodiac. Ex.: Vorti esas signi di idea. Muti parolas (od, signalifas) per signi. Signi aparis en la cielo. — EFIS

signal-ar: (tr.) to signal: convey (ulo) by s.; -izar: to hoist signals on (a mast,etc.), to cover with signals; to write or put a s. (on a tree, etc.); -ifar: to make signals. — DEFIRS

signat-ar: (tr.) to sign, subscribe (one’s name), put signature to (cf. sub-skribar); -o: signing (by name); -uro: signature; -uro blanka: signature in blank; -ajo: what is signed, the document; stereotipa (od klish-ita) -uro: stamped facsimile of a signature. Def.: Skribar sua nomo por certigar od autentikigar dokumento; V-494. — DEFIS

signifik-ar: (tr.) to signify, mean; -o: signification, meaning; -anta, -iva: significant, significative; sen- -a: insignificant (cf. sen-valora, ne-import-anta). Ex.: Quon signifikas ta vorto? Bona defini establisas la signifiki di la vorti. V. exp.: vid. senco. — EFIS

sik-a: dry, dried: free from moisture; -eso: dryness, drought: -igar, -eskar: to dry (up), desiccate; -ig-iva: desiccative, siccative, drying. Ant.: humida. — EFIRS

sikl-o: sickle. Def.: «Falchileto», t.e. longa streta lameno kun mi-cirklatra formo, quan on uzas (od uzis) por tranchar ex. la frumento; VI-538. — DE

sikomor-o: (bot.) sycamore (-tree) genus: Ficus Sycamorus. — DEFIS

sil-o: silo: pit for ensilage. — DEFIS

silab-o:
syllable; -ala: syllabic; -igar: to separate into s.s.; to spell by s.s.; du - -a vorto: a word of two s.s. — DEFIRS

silenc-ar: (intr.) to be silent: not to make noise; -igar: to silence (a machine etc.); -o: silence, stillness; -anta, -oza, -ema: silent, still; -ez: stop that noise! Ex.: La mashino silencis. Dum la silenco di la nokto. Foresto silencoza. V. exp.: Taco esas absenteso di parolado; silenco absenteso di bruiso. Ant.: bruisar. — EFIS

sileps-o: (gram.) syllepsis.

silex-o: silex: pure quartz, flint; -atra: flintlike; paf-ilala -o: gun-flint. Ex.: La primitiva homi facis sua hakili ek silexo. — EFIS

silf-o, -ino, -ulo: sylph. — DEFIRS

silic-o:
(chem.) silica. — EFIS

silik-o: (chem.) silicon; -ato: silicate; -at-acido: silicic acid. Def.: La kemiala elemento Si; V-159. — DEFIS

siliqu-o:
(bot.) silique; -eto: silicle. — EFIS

silikon-o: (2001) silicone. — DEFIRS

silk-o: silk; -a: (made of) silk; -ajo, -a stofo: s. goods; -o-filo: s. thread; -o-kulturado: s. culture; -o-raupo: silkworm. — ER

silogism-o: syllogism; -ala: syllogistic(al). — DEFIRS

silogistik-o*: syllogistic: a department of logic.

siluet-o:
silhouette, profile in black. — DEFIRS

silur-o: (ichth.) silurid, silure, sheat-fish, cat-fish (genus: Silurus). — EFIS

silurian-o: (geol.) Silurian epoch; -a: Silurian. — DEFS

silv-o: forest of fully-grown lofty trees. — IL

silvan-o: (myth.) sylvan: god, Sylvanus: wood deity.

silvi-o: (orni.) garden warbler, white-throat (species of Sylvia). — L

simar-o: simar: (of priests) cassock; (cf. sutano); (justice’s) robe; a former long gown worn by women. — EFI

simbios-o: (biol.) symbiosis. — DEFIRS

simbol-o: symbol, emblem, sign; -a, -ala, -atra: symbolic(al), typical, emblematic; -ismo: (philos.) symbolism; -izar: to symbolize; -esar: to be symbolized (da ulo). Ex.: La balanco esas la simbolo dil yusteso. La glavo simbolizas la lego. — DEFIRS

simbolik-o: symbolics, symbolism.

simetr-a: symmetrical: which corresponds in proportion, position; -eso: symmetry; -es-oza: symmetrical: full of symmetry; -igar: to symmetrize: reduce to symmetry; ne- -eso: asymmetry. Ex.: Simetra aranjo di vazi. Simetreso di diskurso. Simetra arkitekturo. — DEFIRS

simfiz-o: (anat., zool.) symphysis. — DEFIRS

simfoni-o: symphony. — DEFIRS

simi-o: (general term) simian: ape, monkey, baboon, etc.; -al-ajo: an ape-like trick. — EFI

simil-a: similar, like; (plural) alike (ad); -(ul)o: a like person; a fellow creature; -eso: similarity, similitude; -ajo: (objective) a s. thing, a similarity; -igar: to render s., to assimilate (cf. asimilar); -esar: to be s., be alike, resemble; -e: in like manner; ne- -a: unlike, dissimilar; sen- -a: matchless (cf. sen- -egala). Ex.: Vizaji, kozi, anguli simila. Ebriemeso similigas la homo a la bruto. — EFIS

simoni-ar: (intr.) to practice simony; -o: simony. Def.: Simonio: komerco kontre-etika di la sakra kozi: III-332. — DEFIS

simpati-ar: (tr., moral and physical) to sympathize with, have sympathy for (ulu); (phys.) be in sympathy with; -ala: sympathetic: relating to s.; -oza: sympathetic: full of s., congenial; -inda: which inspires sympathy; inter- -ar: to mutually sympathize; Ex.: Simpatiala vibri, soni. Simpatioza sentimento, amiko. Simpatiinda povrulo. Merkurio simpatias la oro. Me simpatias vu pro vua desfortuno. Ant.: antipatiar. — DEFIRS

simpatik-o: (physiol.) sympathetic nerve.

simpl-a: simple: not complex or complicated; easy; (of dress) plain, common; -eso: simplicity; plainness; -e: simply, with simplicity; (plu-) -igar: to simplify; -eskar: to become simplified; -a soldato: common soldier, private; Ex.: L’oro, l’arjento, la fero esas simpla korpi. Mekanismo, metodo nekomplikita esas simpla. Simpla stilo, gusti. Simpleso di mori, di vestaro. Vestizar simple. Plu-simpl-igar problemo. Ant.: komplexa, kom-poz-ita, komplik-ita. — EFIS

simptom-o: (med. and fig.) symptom: -a, -atra: symptomatic. Ex.: Simptomo di anemio. (fig.) Simptomo di revolto. — DEFIRS

simul-ar: (tr.) to simulate (cf. fingar, imitar); -achar: to ape; -ita paco: fictitious peace. Def.: Aparigar kom reala ulo quo ne esas tala. Ex.: Simular kombato, maladeso. — DEFIS

simultan-a: common, co-existing, co-equal, simultaneous. V. exp.: Qua valoras egale e kune, solidare, ex.: equacioni simultana. Konseque simultana ne esas sinonimo di samtempe. Dec. 1212, VII-66

sin-o: intimate place, internal part, close or secret receptacle: (fig. senses of) bosom, heart (midst), womb. Ex.: En la sino dil eklezio. En la sino di la tero. La sino di Deo. En la sino di sua familio. — FIS

sinagog-o: synagogue. — DEFIRS

sinap-o: (bot.) mustard (-plant) (genus: Sinapis). — FIL

sinapism-o: sinapism: mustard-plaster, -poultice. — DEFIS

sinaps-o: (2001) synapse. — DEFIRS

sinartros-o: (anat.) synarthrosis.

sincer-a: sincere, frank, honest; -eso: sincerity; ne- -a: insincere. Ex.: Homo, amikeso, regreti, laudo sincera. Sincereso esas valoroza qualeso. Ant.: hipokrita. — EFIS

sindik-o: syndic: a municipal officer; manager, business agent (of corporation, company); administrative assignee (of an insolvent’s estate). — DEFIRS

sindikat-o: (industrial, finan.) syndicate; -ismo: syndicalism; -isto: (partisan) syndicalist; -ano: member of a s.; -igar, -ifar: to s. Def.: Grupo formacita por la defenso di sua ekonomikala interesti komuna. — DEFIRS

sindrom-o: (2001) syndrome. — DEFIRS

sinekdok-o: (rhet.) synecdoche.

sinektik-a: synectic.

sinekur-o: sinecure. Def.: Ofico sen responsiveso o devi. — DEFIS

sinergid-o: (biol.) synergid (cell).

singl-a: each (= every single individual); -u: each one, every single one; -e: singly; -a karti: single cards; li venis single: they came singly (one by one); dek centimi po singla: a penny apiece. Ex.: A singla dio lua tasko. Singla spozulo havas spozino. Ica libro kustas single kin franki. Singla soldato havas fusilo, od, singla soldati havas fusilo (o mem fusili) signifikas: un fusilo ad un soldato. V. exp.: Omna, singla: Omna havas senco kolektiva; singla havas senco distributiva. Ex.: Omnu parolis, singlu en sua linguo (E. everyone spoke, each in his own language). Omna testo juris dicar la verajo, e singlu naracis la evento diverse (E. every witness swore to tell the truth, and each one related the event differently); Generale, singla (quale L. singulus) signifikas: un po un, unope (pro to ta pronomo dicesas «distributiva»; kp. II-665. Note: «Omna singla» is a pleonasm, singla being sufficient to translate «every single». The E. «single» in the sense of alone, is to be translated by sola, izolita, unika, separita. Both omna and singla may be used with the singular and the plural with the same sense. «Every soldier is brave» may be trnaslated: Omna soldato esas brava. Omna soldati esas brava. Singla soldati esas brava. — E

singlut-ar:
(intr.) to sob. — FI

singular-a: singular: pertaining to one (cf. stranja); -o: (gram.) s. number; -eso: (quality), -ajo: (something pertaining to one) singularity, peculiarity. Ex.: Verbo en la singulara nombro (od, en la singularo). Singulara propoziciono, ideo, kazo. Singulareso di opiniono. Singularajo en la manieri di ulu. — DEFIS

sinior-(ul)o: lord, highness, seignior, sire (of rulers); sir (of lords); (cf. sioro); -ino: noble lady, Lady; -eso: seigniory, lordship; -ala: seignioral, lordly; Nia Sinioro: (rel.) our lord; mea -o: your lordship; -o rej-ido: his royal highness; -o episkopo: his eminence, the bishop; -o prezidanto: his excellency, the president. — DEFIS

sinistr-a: left; (nav.) port; -a latero: left side; -uz-ero: left-handed person; turnez (ad) sinistre: turn to the left. Ant.: dextra. — IL

sink-ar:
(tr., intr.) to sink (ulo, en ulo, su); to settle, subside; Ex.: Sinkar palisegaro en la tero. La fero sinkas en l’aquo. V.exp.: kp. Dronar. DE

sinkop-ar: (intr., med.) to swoon; -igar: (gram., mus.) to syncopate; -o: (gram., mus., med.) syncope. — DEFIS

sinkret-ismo, -isto: (philos.) syncret-ism, -ist. — DEFIRS

sinkron-a: (phys.) synchron-al, -ous (cf. sam-tempa, kronologi-ala); -eso: synchronism; -igar: to synchronize. — DEFIS

sinod-o: (eccl.) synod. — DEFIRS

sinodik-a:
(astron.) synodic. — DEFIRS

sinonim-a: synonymous: -o: synonym; -eso: synonymy: quality of being a s. Ant.: antonimo. — DEFIRS

sinoptik-a: synoptic(al). Ex.: Sinoptika tabelo di cienci. La sinoptika evangelio. — DEFIRS

sinovi-o:
(anat.) synovia. — DEFIRS

sins-o: direction (one way); (math.) sense: one of two opposite directions; sam-, kontre-sins-a, -e: same, contrary direction. V. exp.: Direciono, sinso: Konsiderez rekto delinita per du punti A e B. La rekto infinita reprezentas un direciono, qua esas komuna ad ol e ad omna rekti paralela; ma ol havas du sinsi, en qui on povas imaginar la movo di punto sur olu: la sinso de A ad B, e la sinso (inverso o kontrea) de B ad A. Sur mapo on kustumas indikar la sinsi per flechi. On direktas automobilo en ula direciono per la direktilo. E sen tushar la direktilo, sen chanjar do la direciono, on povas movar ol en du sinsi: ad-avane e ad-dope; V-264

sintax-o:
(gram.) syntax. — DEFIRS

sintez-o: (log., math., chem.) synthesis; –ala, ema: synthetic; -ar: to synthesize. V. exp.: Sintezo esas l’ago inversa di analizo. Kemiala sintezo, metodo sintezala. Sintezar albumino. — DEFIRS

sinton-a: (elect.) of or relating to two oscillating circuits having the same resonant frequency.

sinu-o: sinuosity, winding, bend; -oza: sinuous, winding, meandering, serpentine, tortuous; -ifar: to wind about, meander. Ex.: La sinui di litoro, di rivero. — EFIS

sinus-o: (geom.) sine; (anat.) sinus: a cavity, channel; -ito: sinusitis; -oid-o: (geom.) sinusoid.

sior-o:
sir or madam; -ulo: sir, Mr., gentleman; -ino: Mrs., Miss, madam, lady (married or not); (cf. sinioro, damzelo, damo); ge-siori: ladies and gentlemen. — FIS

siren-o:
siren: powerful whistle; (acoustics) a measuring instrument for air vibrations; (myth.) sea-nymph, mermaid; (fig.) a seductive woman; -ala, -atra voco, kanto: (fig.) a siren (bewitching, fascinating) voice, song. — DEFIRS

sirf-o: (zool.) hoverfly (Syrphidae).

siring-o: syringe, squirt; -agar: to syringe, squirt (with a s.). — DEFIS

sirok-o: (wind) sirocco. — DEFIR

sirop-o: syrup; -ala, -atra: syrupy; rib- -o: currant s. — DEFIR

sis:
six; -a-dek: sixty; -o: a half dozen (Note: For other derivative forms cf. du). — EF

sis-ar: (intr.) to hiss; to siss, sizzle; -anta, -anto: sibilant. Def.: Produktas la sono sss…od fff…, t.e. bruiso ne-muzikala, qua esas fonetike konsonanto; VII-207. Ex.: Serpenti, gansi sisas. V. exp: Lokomotivo siflas per sua siflilo, e samtempe sisas emisante vaporo ek la kaldiero o la cilindri, tra robineti, ma ne siflante.

sism-o:
earthquake, vibration of the earth; -a, -ala: seismic.

sismograf-o: seismograph. Def.: Instrumento por enskribar la ter-tremi; VI-135. — DEFIRS

sismologi-o:
seismology. — DEFIS

sismometr-o: seismometer. Def.: Instrumento por mezurar la ter-tremi. — DEFIS

sismoskop-o:
seismoscope.

sistem-o: system; -ala: (tendency) -ema: systematic, methodical (cf. metod-ala, -oza); -igar: to systematize. Ex.: La sistemo di Descartes. Planetala sistemo, od planetosistemo, od planetaro. Il esas persono tre sistemema. Sistemigar sua idei, sua dokumenti. — DEFIRS

sistematik-o: systematizing: scientific (or efficient) disposition; labo(u)r saving arrangements. — DEFIS

sistol-o: (anat., gram.) systole. Ant.: diastolo. — DEFIS

sistr-o: sistrum: Egyptian musical instrument.

sitel-o: pail, bucket; -edo: bucketful. — L

situ-ar: (tr.) to place, seat, locate (ulo, ulu) (cf. jacar, pozar, plas-izar, lok-izar); -o, -eso: situation, site location; -ita: situate(d). Ex.: Domo, urbo bone situita (o kun bona situeso). Dramatatra situeso. Situeso bona, mala, embarasiva. V. exp.: Situeso, relate personi, esas generale acidentala, tempala; la stando esas kustumale permananta. On trovas sua aferi en neagreabla situeso, qua forsan developos a permananta mala stando. — DEFIS

siv-o: sieve, sifter (for flour, etc.); strainer (for liquids) (cf. kriblo, filtrar); -agar: (tr.) to sift, bolt, strain; (fig.) to examine minutely, separate the good from the bad; to winnow. — DE

sive: (1) whether; (2) either; (1) sive ... sive: (alternative and condition) whether … or whether; sive vu parolas, sive vu tacos, vu esos blamota: whether you speak, or whether you are silent, you will be blamed; (2) me drinkos, sive biro, sive vino: I shall drink beer or wine (N.B. In the last example it is to be noted that sive is equivalent to od…od). V. exp.: Sive, od: Sive implikas sempre (segun etimologio origino: L. sive = si-ve = od se) supozo, kondiciono, konseque ne-certeso o questiono. Sive vu parolos, sive vu tacos, t.e. se vu parolos, o se vu tacos. Od expresas simpla alternativo; III-689, VIII-409. — L

siz-ar: (tr.) to sieze, gripe, catch or lay hold of; (fig.) to take, grasp quickly, apprehend (arrest); to distrain (property); -ilo: griping. Def.: prenar o manukaptar vivace e vigoroze ulu, ulo. ex.: Sizar l’espado per la pinto. Sizar la brakio di ulu. Sizar la havajo di ulu. Sizar oportuna instanto (o tempo). Sizar pretexto. Teroro sizis la menti. La febro sizas me. — EF

sizigi-o: (astron.) syzygy. — DEFIRS

skabel-o: (wooden-) stool, foot-stool (cf. tabureto). Def.: Moblo por la pedi, o por acensar sur olu; II-647. — FIS

skabi-o: (med.) scabies, itch; (of animals) mange; -ala, -atra, -oza: scabious; -ika, -iko: (person, animal) infected with itch; (N.B. A scab on a sore is to be translated by krusto). — EFI

skabin-o: alderman; (F. echevin). — FI

skabios-o: (bot.) scabious (genus: Scabiosa). — DEFIRS

skafandr-o: diving suit (with helmet, etc.); -iero, -isto: diver. Def.: Plunj-vestaro kompleta kontenanta homo tota; III-267. — FIS

skal-o: ladder; scale: instrument of measurement; (math., mus.) scale; -atre: ladder-like; in gradation; -o-grado: round rung (of a ladder); -atre dis-pozar: to arrange in gradations; (milit.) to draw up in echelon; kordo- -o: rope ladder; helpar ulu kom -o: to act as a ladder for someone to mount; -acensar: to climb a ladder; -o aritmetik-ala: arithmetic scale; -o soci-ala: social scale; laborar ye granda -o: to work on a large scale; -o-plako: dial-face (for dials other than those with numbers; cf. cifro-plako). — DEFIRS

skalar-o: (math.) scalar. — DEFIRS

skalen-o: (geom.) scalene.

skali-o: shell (as of an oyster, etc.) (cf. shelo); -a pekt-ilo: a tortoise-shell comb; tortugala -o: tortoise s.; -oza: scaly, squamous. Def.: La krusto dika e solida qua kovras la korpo di la tortugi, ostri, musli, e.c.; VI-603. — FI

skalp-ar: (tr.) to scalp: deprive of s.; -o: scalping; -ajo: s.: skin on top of the head. — DEFIR

skalpel-o: (surg.) scalpel. — DEFIRS

skamone-o: (bot.) scammony (Convolvulus scammonia). — DEFIS

skanor-o*: scanner: a device that reads or copies information or images into a computer; a device that is used to see inside something.

skand-ar: (tr.) to scan (verse); -o-vergo, -o-baston-eto: orchestra leader’s baton. — DEFIRS

skandal-ar: (tr.) to scandalize, shock, offend (ulu); -esar: to be scandalized (da, pri); -o: scandal(izing); -anta, -oza, -iva: scandalous. Ex.: Lua konduto skandalis la tota urbo. — DEFIRS

skapul-o: (anat.) scapula, omoplate; -parto: shoulder-blade. — EL

skapulari-o: (rel.) scapular(y). — DEFIRS

skarabe-o: (ent.) scarab, horn-beetle (genus: Scarabæus). — EFIRS

skaramuch-o: scaramouch; (fig.) cowardly buffoon. Def.: Persono di la komedio Italiana; IV-583. — DEFI

skarifik-ar: (tr., surg.) to scarify (the skin of someone). V. exp.: tranchar. — EFIRS

skarlat-a, -o: scarlet (colo(u)r). — DEFIRS

skarlatin-o: (med.) scarlatina: scarlet fever. — DEFIRS

skarmuch-ar: (intr.) to skirmish, to have a brush with the enemy. — DEFIS

skars-a: scarce: not plentiful; scanty (cf. rara, des-densa); -eso: scarcity. Def.: Des-abund-anta; V-595. Ant.: densa, abund-anta. — EL

«skat»: (card game) skat.

skelet-o: (anat.) skeleton. — DEFIRS

skem-o: schema, scheme: systematic plan; outline or demonstration of a system, showing relations and functions; (N.B. not «scheme» project); -ala, -atra: schematic; -ifar, -izar: to schematize. — DEFIRS

sken-o: hank, skein; -uno: one of the threads of a skein. — E

skeptik-a, -(ul)o: sceptic(al) (cf. ne-kred-ema); -eso: (spirit of) scepticism; -ismo: scepticism: doctrine of the sceptics. — DEFIRS

skerc-o:
(mus.) scherzo. — DEFIR

skerm-ar: (intr.) to fence: practise sword-play; -arto: art of f.; -o-doc-anto; -o-maestro: fencing-master, a master of fencing. — FIS

sket-ar: (intr.) to skate; -ilo: a skate. — E

ski-o: skee, ski; -kurar, -glitar: to skate on skees. Def.: Speco de sketilo longa, ligna, por kurar e glitar sur la nivo; IV-707. — DEFIS

skir-o: (med.) scirrhus: a hard tumo(u)r.

skis-ar: (tr.) to sketch, outline, make a rough draft of; (fig.) to delineate: give the plan or idea of; -o, -uro: sketch, outline; (rough) drawing. Ex.: Skisar peizajo, portreto, (fig.) poemo. Skisar demarsho. Skisuro di romano. V. exp.: vid. esbosar. — DFIRS

skism-o: schism; -ano, -ana: schismatic(al). — DEFIRS

skist-o:
(min.) schist, slate (cf. ardezo). — EFIS

sklav-o, -ulo, -ino: slave; -ala, -atra, -ema: slave, slavish, servile; -eso, -atr-eso, -igo, -esko: slavery, servility, servitude, bondage; -esar: to be a s., be in slavery; -igar: to enslave, enthrall (ulu); -isto: partisan of slavery; -ig-isto: slaver. — DEFIS

sklerotik-a: (anat.) sclerotic. — DEFIS

skol-o: school: a place or establishment where instruction is given, usually elementary; disciples or followers of some teacher or doctrine in art, philosophy, -etc.; -ala: school, academic; -o komuna: common s.; -o di kavalko arto: riding school; -o milit-ala: military academy, school; -o yuro-cienco: law s.; -o di Platon: s. of Plato; -ano: schoolchild, pupil, scholar (cf. erudito, ciencisto, lern-anto, stipend-iero, dicipulo); -estro: schoolmaster; aplik- -o: technical school or college, polytechnic, trade s.; apliko-skolo di artilrio: artillery s. — DEFIRS

skolastik-a, -(ul)o: scholastic, schoolman; -ismo: scholasticism. — DEFIRS

skoli-o: (lit., geom.) scholium. Def.: Komento od expliko di texto; matematikal expliko di teoremo; IV-583. — DEFIS

skoliast-o: scholiast, annotator. — DEFIRS

skolopendr-o: (ent.) scolopendra, the genus of centipedes. — DEFIS

skop-o: that at which one aims; aim, scope, objective, intent(ion), purpose, view, goal, butt, object to attack; -o-plako: target; -o-punto: bull’s eye. Ex.: Vizar skopo per flecho. Frapar la skopo per kuglo. Atingar sua skopo di vivo. Mariajar su esis la skopo di elua esforci. Pafar a la skopo-plako. — EI

skops-o: (orni.) scops, eared owl (Scops Aldrovandi). — EFL

skorbut-o:
(med.) scurvy; -ala, -atra: scorbutic: relating to the disease; -ika, -iko: (person) affected with s. — DEFIRS

skori-o: (metal) scoria, dross, slag; -igar: to scorify: reduce to s. — EFIS

skorpion-o: (ent., also astron.) scorpion. — DEFIRS

skorzoner-o: (bot.) viper’s grass (genus: Scorzonera). — DEFIRS

skotish-o: (dance) schottish. — DEFIS

skovel-o: cannon-sponge, -swab; -agar: to sponge (a cannon).

skrach-ar: (tr.) to scratch, claw, graze, gall; (of ropes) to chafe; (of clothing) to make a rent in (cf. lacerar, gratar, skrapar, exkoriar). Def.: Facar sek(et)o en la pelo (od altra surfaco), do vundeto; IV-656. V. exp.: La ungli di kato skrachas bonege, ma nule exkorias. Me tante gratis me, ke me fine skrachis me. — E

skrap-ar: (tr.) to scrape (with a tool), scrape off, abrade; (of chimneys) to sweep; to scale off; -uri: scrapings. Def.: Deprenar gratante per instrumento ula parti de la surfaco di korpo. Ex.: Skrapar anciena pergameno. La stono skrapis la pelo. Skrapar kraso de la pelo, o fango de la vestaro. — E

skren-o: screen; fairo –o: fire-screen. — EFR

skrib-ar: (tr.) to write (ulo, ad ulu); -(ad)o, -uro: (act, result) writing; -uro santa: Holy Scriptures; -formo, -maniero: form or manner of writing; -a: being written, being in writing; -ajo: what is written: written paper, document; -ala: relating to the writing; -e: in writing; -ita: written; -anto, -into: writer; -isto: professional writer, scribe (N.B. not author; cf. autoro); -ilo: a writing instrument, pen, etc.; -il-aro: stand for ink and pens; collection of writing instruments, pens; en-skrib-ar: to inscribe; en-skrib-uro: inscription; -achar: to scrawl, scribble; -kuseno: a pad to write upon; -mashino: typewriter; mashin-skribar: to typewrite; -tablo: writing-table, -desk. — DEFIS

skript-ar: (intr.) to write literature.

skroful-o: (med.) scrofula, king’s evil; -ala, -atra: scrofulous: relating to the disease; -ika, -iko: scrofulous (person); -oso: scrofulosis. — DEFIS

skrot-o: (anat.) scrotum. — DEFIS

skrub-o: screw (cf. helico); -agar: to s. down, s. on (something with screws. N.B. not to screw the screw; cf. visar); -izar: to put screws on: cover with screws; -ten-ilo, -mord-ilo: vise (vice); -o-krampono: screw-clamp; preso- -o: thumb-screw, adjusting-screw; Arkimed-ala -o: Archimedian s.; sen-fina -o: endless s.; ligno- -o: wooden s.; -ino: female s.; a nut; -turn-ilo: screwdriver, turnscrew. — De

skrupul-o: (moral) scruple, qualm; -oza, -ema: scrupulous. Ex.: Havar skrupulo pri ulo. Homo sen-skrupula. — DEFIRS

skud-o:
(e)scutcheon; (Italian money) scudo; -o-forma: scutiform: shield-shaped. Def.: Speco di shildo, mikra, portanta la blazono di ulu; e konseque, irga planko shild-forma e portanta blazono, imajo o sur-skriburo; V-432. — FIS

skult-ar:
(tr.) to sculpture, carve (ulo, en, ek); -(ad)o; -arto; -uro: sculpture; -isto, -ero: sculptor, carver. Def.: Produktar statuo en korpala naturaleso od en vera reliefo; VII-414. V. exp.: On povas ex. cizelar kapo (vizajo) homala segun la perspektivo, ma on skultas ol donante ad ol la reala formo. On cizelas perspektiva figuro sur bloko, on gliptas reala figuro sur bloko, ma on skultas figuro de bloko, t.e. on transformas la bloko a ta figuro korpala; VII-414. — DEFIRS

skuner-o:
(nav.) schooner; -o kin-masta: a five-masted s. Def.: Navo kun seglo-rigaro ne transversa ma longesala. — DEFIR

skur-ar: (tr.) to scour, furbish: to cleanse by scrubbing; -isto: scourer; scullion. Def.: Destruktar e forprenar partikli o despuraji de la surfaco di ula korpo per friciono; III-163. — DEFS

skurel-o:
(zool.) squirrel (genus: Sciurus). — DE

slam-o: slimo, mire, ooze, silt; -eyo: miry place, slough, mudhole, quagmire (cf. marsh-eto); -izar: to cover with, choke up with fine oozy mud or silt. — De

slang-o: slang; -ar: to speak s. (cf. jargono, galimatiaso). Def.: Linguo specala, konvencionala e plu o min sekreta, propra a profesiono od a societo klozita (studenti, raptisti); VII-158. — DE

Slav-o: Slav, Slavonian; la -a (lingui): the Slav(onian) languages.

sling-o: noose, sling, snare, loop (cf. glit-nodo, lazo). Def.: Nodo en kordo, e.c. ne forsita per tiro; III-288. — De

slip-o:
slip (of a screw-propeller) (cf. ripar). — DE

slogan-o: (2001) slogan.

slup-o: (nav.) sloop. Def.: Speco de seglo-navo kun un masto; IV-583. — DEFIR

sluz-o: lock, sluice; -pordo: lock-, sluice-gate; -baseno: l. chamber; -isto: l. keeper; -agar: to take (a boat, ship) through a l.; to open a l. for a boat; -o di muel-ilo: mill-dam, penstock. — DER

smalt-o: smalt: a deep-blue glass (often pulverized). — DEFIRS

smartfon-o*: smartphone.

smerald-o: (min.) emerald. — DEFIRS

smeril-o: (min.) emery; -agar: to polish with e.; -pulvero: e. powder; -polvo: e. dust; -papero: e. paper. — FIS

smok-ar*: (tr.) to smoke (tobacco).

snap-ar: (tr.) to snap, snatch: bite or catch suddenly with the teeth ( as a dog) or with beak (as a bird). Def.: Kaptar bruske per la boko; IV-512. — DE

snifl-ar:
(tr., intr.) to sniff: inhale strongly; snuff up; (fig.) to turn up one’s nose (at); -o-tabako: snuff.

snob-o: (2001) snob. — DEFIRS

snorkel-o: (2001) snorkel (device for air). — DEFRS

snort-ar: (intr., of horses) to snort: blow through the nose (cf. sternutar, mungar). — E

sobr-a:
(also fig.) temperate: moderate in food or drink; sparing, abstemious, sober; (cf. ne-ebria, temper-ema, -moder-ema); -eso: temperance, sobriety, moderation; -es-ala soci-eto: temperance society; -e: soberly, with sobriety. Ex.: La homo qua ne exajeras manjante, drinkante, qua esas moderema e su-dominacanta, esas sobra persono. Esar sobra en parolado, en laudado. — EFIS

soci-o: society (in general) community: any large body of persons or living beings living a community life; -eto: society (formed for a particular object), association; (com.) company, partnership (cf. firmo); -ano: member of a (large) society; citizen; -et-ano: member of an association; -ala: social: relating to society; -et-ala: relating to an association; -ema: sociable; -em-eso: sociability, good fellowship; -al-ismo: socialism; -al-ist-a, -ala: socialist. Ex.: Omnu havas devi a la socio. Abeli vivas en societi. Societi komercal, literaturala, ciencala. — DEFIRS

sociolog-o:
sociologist. — DEFIRS

sociologi-o:
sociology. — DEFIRS

socis-o:
(large, long) sausage; -eto: a small s. — EFIR

sod-o:
(chem.) soda: sodium carbonate (cf. natro); -aquo: soda water. — DEFIR

sodomi-ar:
(intr.) to commit sodomy. — DEFIS

sofa-o:
sofa. V. exp.: vid. kanapeo, divano. — DEFIS

sofism-o:
sophism, (conscious) fallacy; -ala: sophistical (cf. sofist-ala). V. exp.: vid. paralogismo. — DEFIRS

sofist-o:
sophist; -ala: sophistical (cf. sofismala). — DEFIRS

sofistik-o:
sophistry. — DEFIRS

sofit-o:
(arch.) soffit; -i: (theat.) flies. — DEFIRS

sok-o:
sock: plowshare. — EF

sokl-o:
(arch.) socle (cf. piedestalo, plinto). — DEFIRS

sokurs-ar:
(tr.) to succo(u)r: to come to the aid of when in danger; -armeo: relief army. Ex.: Sokursar ulu dronanta. V. exp.: Sokursar signifikas irar rapide e kurajoze helpar ulu, uli, en situeso di minacanta danjero; on helpas ulu en desfortunoza o perturbita situeso per la donaco di adicionala forci o moyeni. On sokursas amiko en batalio; on helpas la povri, falinto. — EFIS

sol:
(mus.) sol: fifth note of diatonic scale.

sol-a:
alone; without company, sole, only (cf. nura, unika, solitara); -eso: solitude; -isto: (mus.) soloist; -o: (mus.) solo. Def.: Qua esas ne-akompanata; izolita. Ex.: Il esas sola en la chambro. Unu sola ne povas facar to. Laborar sole. Il esas sola en solitara loko. — DEFIRS

solan-o:
(bot.) nightshade (genus: Solanum). — IL

sold-ar:
(tr.) to solder (metals); -ilo: soldering-iron; -o-stano: (metal) solder; kun- -ita: soldered together. V. exp.: vid. weldar. — EFIS

soldat-o:
soldier, trooper; -ala, -atra: soldierly; -o (simpla): an ordinary s., a private. — DEFIRS

sole-o:
(ichth.) sole (genus: Solea); -o*, -a muskulo: (anat.) soleus: a leg muscle. — EFI

solecism-o:
solecism. — DEFIRS

solen-a:
solemn; -eso, -ajo: (quality, art) solemnity; -igar: to solemnize. Ex.: Solena festo, vovo, dio, tono, vizajo. — DEFIS

solenoid-o:
solenoid. — DEFIRS

solfej-ar:
(tr., mus.) to (sing) sol-fa: sing the notes of the scale; -o: sol-faing; solfeggio. — DEFR

soli-o:
threshhold (of a door, of a window; also fig.), door-soll. Ex.: (fig.) la solio di vivo. — FI

solicit-ar:
(tr.) to solicit: earnestly apply for (cf. suplikar, peticionar); -ema: solicitous (cf. suci-ema); -anto, -ero, -isto: solicitor, canvasser. Def.: Insistoze demandar. Ex.: Solicitar audienco, employeso, ofico, favoro. Segun la solicito (di). Solicitero por voti. — DEFIS

solid-a:
(also geom.) solid: not liquid; (fig.) firm, substantial, sound; -o, -ajo: a s. body; (geom.) a s. figure; -eso: solidity, stability; -igar: (tr.) -eskar: (intr.) to solidify; plu- -igar: to consolidate. Ex.: Solida korpo, angulo, nutrivi, edifico. (fig.) Motivi, argumenti solida. La solideso di domo. Koldeso solidigas aquo. Ant.: liquida, fluida, frajila. — DEFIS

solidar-a: (jur. and gen.) solidary: jointly and severally responsible or liable; binding upon every one; -e: conjointly, jointly and severally; -eso: solidarity, joint responsibility; (fig.) coherence, fellowship, community of interests; -igar: to make jointly liable; to unite the interests of (cf. konsolidar). Ex.: Solidara obligaciono. La spozulo esas solidara por la debaji di sua spozino. Asociiti en komercal societo esas solidara. (fig.) La solidareso en la interesti di omna laboristi. — DEFIRS

soliped-a, -o:
(zool.) soliped(ous). — DEFIS

solitar-a: (of places) solitary, lonely, deserted; (of persons) (living) alone; -eso: loneliness, solitude. V.exp.: Solitara esas ulo plu kam sola, mem kam solesema: to esas: «qua restas kustume tote sola ed izolita». Exempli: Solitar querko stacas meze di la planajo. On povas anke parolar pri solitara loko; to nule esus sinonima si dezerta: ex.: «ta solitara templo esas frequentata da multa pilgrimanti.» Solitareso expresas la L. solitudo. On povas vivar sola, mem en urbo; to ne esas vivar solitara od en solitareso. On anke havas la substantivo solitaro por persono; V-101. — EFIS

soliter-o: (game and gem) solitaire. — DEFIRS

solstic-o: solstice; -o vintr-ala: winter solstice. — DEFIRS

solvar: (tr.) to solve (a problem, etc.) (cf. dis-solvar); -uro: (also physical) solution; -ajo: what is to be solved, the problem; -ebla: (also phys.) solvable; soluble, dissolvable. Ex.: Solvar problemo, desfacilajo. La rezultajo di dis-solvo di sukro per aquo esas sukroza (dis-)solvuro. — EFIS

solvent-a:
(fin.) solvent; -eso: solvency; ne- -a: insolvent (cf. bankrotar). Def.: Pago-kapabla; II-76. — DEFIRS

somat-o: (biol.) soma. — DEFIS

somer-o: summer. — DE

somit-o: (geom., also of trees, mountains, etc.) summit, top. V. exp.: La suprajo ne esas sempre nek necese la somito, nam ol povas esar larja e plana; on ne parolas pri la «somito» di moblo, di (plata) domo. La suprajo di la tero tote ne identesas kun la somiti di la monti; II-163. — EFI

somnambul-a, -ala; -(ul)o;
-eso: somnambulist-ic, -ism. — DEFIS

somnol-ar: (intr.) to be sleepy, drowsy; -o: somnolence; -anta, -ema: sleepy, drowsy; -egar: to be overpoweringly sleepy. Def.: Sentar la bezono o tendenco (momentala) dormar; IV-463. V. exp.: Dormema indikas kustumala tendenco a dormar, ne instantala stando. — DEFIS

son-(ad)ar:
(intr.) to sound: emit a sound; (of clocks) to strike; -igar: to ring (ulo) (cf. tinklar); -o: sound, ring, striking: -lud-ilo: rattle. Ex.: La horlojo sonas. Sonigar la korno. Sonigar (ulo) por la retreto, por servisto, por la dineo. EFIS

sonali-o: small bell (as used on the harness of horses). Def.: Instrumento sonora, en formo di bulo kava, fendita, qua sonas per la bulo agitata interne; IV-14. — I

sonat-o:
(mus.) sonata; -eto: sonatina. — DEFIRS

sond-ar: (tr., intr.) to take soundings in; (gen.) to sound: ascertain the depth of, explore the nature of the bottom; to fathom; (fig.) to try, test; (med.) to probe (with a probe), to sound (with a sound); (mining) to make a boring; -ilo: (nav.) sounding-line, -lead; (surg.) probe; sound; jetar la sond-ilo: to heave the lead. Ex.: Sondar rivero, tereno, vunduro, veziko (fig.) l’intenci di ulu. — DEFIRS

sonet-o: sonnet. — DEFIRS

sonj-ar: (intr.) to dream (while asleep; cf. revar). Ex.: Me dormis e sonjis ke me esis richa. — FIS

sonk-o: (bot.) sow-thistle (genus: Sonchus). — L

sonor-a: sonorous, resonant; -eso: sonorousness. Ex.: Sonora voco, linguo. Ant.: matida. — DEFIS

soport-o: (mechan.) bearing.

sopran-o:
(voice, person) soprano, treble. — DEFIRS

soqu-o: sock: shoe used by actors in ancient comedy.

sorb-o: (bot.) sorb-apple, mountain-ash berry; -iero: sorb-tree, service tree, mountain-ash, rowan tree (genus: Sorbus). — DEFIS

sorbet-o: sherbet: a water ice. — DEFIRS

sorc-ar: (intr.) to practise sorcery, witchcraft; (tr.) to bewitch (ulu, ulo): (fig.) to charm, enchant; -(ad)o: sorcery, witchcraft; -eso: (state) bewitchment; enchantment; -ilo: charm; -isto: sorcerer: one who is supposed to be in league with evil spirits; (fig.) wizard, conjuror, magician; -ist-ino: witch. Ex.: On ankore trovas kredo ad sorcado inter la populi savaja. (fig.) Ta muliero sorcas me. — EF

sordid-a, -ega, -acha:
(of things) dirty, nasty, foul, soiled, sordid, slovenly, sluttish; (fig. of persons, acts) mean, disgusting (cf. shaminda, pudora); -eso, -ajo: (quality, object) dirtiness, filthiness: dirt, filth; -(ul)o, -acho: a dirty person; -igar: to dirty, soil. Def.: Des-neta. Ex.: Sordida aquo, linji, chambro, manui, homo, avareso. — EFIS

sordin-o: (lit. and fig.) sordino: a mute or damper on trumpet, violin, piano, etc. — DEFIS

sorg-ar: (tr.) to care for (by physical acts), take care of, look after (ulu, ulo); to take pains with; -(ad)o: care, attendance; -ema: careful, painstaking, regardful (cf. diligenta). Ex.: Konfidar ad ulu la sorgo (pri). Komisar ulu por sorgar (pri). El esas la flegisto qua sorgas il. Sorga la stilo. Sorgema laboristo. (fig.) Esar sorgema pri sua honoro, sua reputo. V. exp.: vid. suciar. — D

sorgum-o:
(bot.) Indian millet (Sorghum vulgare).

sorit-o:
(log.) sorites. — DEFIRS

sort-o: sort, kind: brand (of goods); -aro: assortment. (Note: For idiomatic uses of the E. «sort», «kind», cf. quaza, quala, tala, ul-maniere). Ex.: Ibe esas omna sorti di bestii. Quala viro! Il esas ulsorta (o quaza, od ulspeca) giganto. — DEFIRS

sospir-ar: (intr.) to sigh, heave or fetch a s.; (tr., fig.) to sigh out, breathe forth. Ex.: Sospiro pro doloro. (fig.) Sospirar versi. — FIS

«sou»:
sou: 20th part of a franc.

sovaj-a: (referring to living and growing persons, plants, trees, etc.) savage: wild (living in a state of nature) not domesticated, uncivilized; (fig.) unsociable; ferocious, fierce; -(ul)o: a s.; -eso: savagery, wildness; (fig.) fierceness; -igar, -eskar: to make, become s. Ex.: Sovaja populi, animali. Anado sovaja (E. wild). (fig.) Mieno sovaja. — EFIS

soya-o*: (bot.) soy.

sozi-o: double, second self, counterpart. Def.: Persono qua esas perfekte simila ad altru. — DFI

spac-o: space; -ala: spacial; -oza: spacious, roomy. Ex.: spaco havas tri dimensioni. Hike ne esas sata spaco. Spacala relati. Spacoza chambro. — EFIS

spad-o: (tool) spade; -agar: (tr.) to spade. — DE

spadic-o: (bot.) spadix.

«spahi»:
spahi: Algerian horse-soldier.

span-o: chip (of wood, metal) (cf. rabot-uro). Def. Reziduo dil ago limar, rabotar o di altra tranchanta instrumento. V. exp.: vid. splito. — D

spaniel-o: spaniel. — DEF

spant-o:
a timber, rib, in the frame of a ship. — DE

spanyolet-o: window-sash fastening (the ordinary bolt and catch; cf. kremono). Def.: Vekto ocilanta cirkum sua mezpunto e qua ingranas od embragas en hoki supre ed infre di la fenestro; IV-448. — DFI

spar-ar: (tr.) to economize, save, put by, husband; (intr.) to be economical, frugal; -egar, -achar: to be stingy, parsimonious, niggardly; -o, -em-eso: economy, thrift; -ajo: what is saved, savings; -ala, -iva: saving, economizing; -ema: thrifty, frugal; -kaso: savings bank; -buxo: money-box. Ex.: Sparar la revenui di la heredajo. On povas sparar tempo, kredito, forteso. Me sparis mil franki por futura uzo. Spariva procedo. Sparema mento.

sparadrap-o: (pharm. Med.) cerecloth, sparadrap. Def.: Kataplasmo aglutinanta extensita sur linjo o papero. Ex.: Kovrar vunduro per sparadrapo.

sparvier-o:
(orni.) sparrow-hawk (Falco Nisus). — DFI

spasm-o: spasm; -ala, -atra: spasmodic. V. exp.: vid. konvulso. — EFIRS

spat-o: (min.) spar. —DFIRS

spatul-o: (pharm.) spatula; -ucelo: spoonbill (genus: Platalea). — DEFIS

spec-o: species (fig.) kind (cf. genero, sorto, qual-eso); -ala: special: relating to s.; particular, (e)special; -vari omna-speca: all sorts of wares; -al-eso: (quality) peculiarity; -al-ajo: something special, a specialty; -al-isto: specialist; -al-igar: to specialize: adopt a specialty (su, ulu); -igar: to specify: designate particularly, particularize; -ig-anta, -iva: specifying, particularizing; specific (specifika). Ex.: Homala speco. Speci esas dividata en varietati. Il esas stranja speco di homo. Specala studio. To esas specale dezirenda. La specalesi di diferanta kozi. Existas multa specalaji en la medicinala praktikado. La lego specigas to quon on darfas facar. Speciganta nomo. Specigiva (od, partikulara) instrucioni. — DEFIRS

specifik-a: (med., physics) specific (cf. spec-iganta, -igiva); -o: a specific. Ex.: Graveso specifika. Esas specifika mikrobo en tuberkloso. Quinino esas specifiko kontre ula febro. — DEFIS

specimen-o: specimen, sample. Ex.: Montrar specimeno di frumento, di drapo, di vino, di insekto. — DEFS

spegul-o: mirror, looking-glass; -o brul-anta: burning-m.; regardar su en -o: to look at oneself in the glass; kirurgiala -o: speculum. — DeI

spekt-ar: (tr.) to look at or on, be a spectator of, witness; (cf. regardar, vidar, kontemplar); -anto: spectator; -ajo: spectacle, sight, view (cf. spektaklo). Def.: Regardar longe, pasive, ma kun atenco ed intereso, quale en teatro od altra spektaklo; V-35. Ex.: Il spektis ta eventi. La aktori e la spektanti. La spektajo (od, vidajo) de ta vidpunto esis bela. Ta veneracinda viro esas spektindajo. — EFIS

spektakl-o: (theat., etc.) spectacle, pageant, performance. — EFIRS

spektr-o: (physics) spectrum. — DEFIRS

spektroskop-o: spectroscope. — DEFIRS

spektroskopi-o:
spectroscopy. — DEFIRS

spekul-ar: (intr.) to speculate: (philos.) to theorize; (finan.) to make (financial) speculations. Ex.: Spekular pri metafizikala problemi, pri frumento. — DEFIRS

speleologi-o: (2001) speleology: study or exploration of caves . — DEFIRS

spelt-o: (bot.) spelt (Triticum Spelta). — DEIS

spencer-o: spencer: a short jacket. — DEFI

spens-ar: (tr.) to spend, expend; -(ad)o: spending, expenditure; -i, -ajo: expenses: sum(s) spent; -ema: extravagant, spendthrift; vivar per la spensi di ulu: to live at the expense of someone; asumar la spensi: to finance (ulo). Ex.: Spensar pekunio, sua vigoro. Ta esas povra di qua la spensi transpasas la recevaji. — EFI

spergul-o: (bot.) spurry (genus: Spergula). — DEFIS

sperm-o: (physiol.) sperm: animal seed; -ala: spermatic, seminal (cf. semin-ala). — DEFIRS

spermacet-o: spermaceti (used for candles, cosmetics, etc.). — DEFIR

spermatid-o: (biol.) spermatid.

spermatocit-o: (biol.) spermatocyte. — DEFIS

spermatofor-o: (zool.) spermatophore. — DEFIS

spermatogenez-o: (biol.) spermatogenesis. — DEFIS

spermatogoni-o: (biol.) spermatogonium. — DEFIS

spermatore-o: (med.) spermatorrhea. — DEFIS

spermatozoid-o: (bot.) spermatozoid; (zool.) spermatozoon. — DEFIS

spermin-o: (physiol., chem.) spermine. — DEFIS

spermocentr-o: (biol.) centrosome of the spermatozoid.

spic-o: spice: pepper, nutmeg, ginger, etc. (cf. kondimento, piklo); -aro: spices (collect); (fig.) groceries; -izar: to spice; -o-komerco, -o-venderio: (fig.) grocery business; -(o-vend)isto: grocer. — DEFIS

spik-o: (bot.) ear: spike or head of corn, grain; -ifar: to ear; haro- -o: tuft of hair. — EIS

spin-o: spine, backbone; chine; -ala: spinal; ruptar la -o: to break the back. — EFIS

spinat-o: (bot.) spinach (Spinacia). — DeIRS

spindel-o: spindle: piece of wood used for twisting and winding thread (cf. fuzelo; bobino, ruko); -atra: s.-shaped, s.-like. — De

spinel-o: (min.) a spinel ruby.

spion-ar: (tr.) to spy on (ulu, ulo); (intr.) to act as a spy; -(ad)o: spying, espionage: -anto, -ero, -isto: spy. — DEFIRS

spir-o: (geom.) a winding line like the threads of a screw, helix.

spiral-o: (geom.) spiral; (of a watch) hair spring; (in gen.) a spiral spring; -a, -atra: spiral: winding like the turns of a screw. — DEFIRS

spire-o:
(bot. genus) spiræa. — DEFIS

spirem-o: (biol.) spireme. — DEFIS

spirit-o: spirit: incorporeal being; -ala: spiritual; -isto: spiritist, spiritualist: one who professes to hold intercourse with departed spirits or believes such intercourse possible; -ismo: spiritism, spiritualism: doctrine or beliefs of spiritists; -ist-a, -ala: spiritistic; -al-ismo: (philos.) spiritualism: a system opposed to materialism; -al-isto: spiritualist (opp. to materialist); -al-eso: spirituality; -al-igar: to spiritualize: render spiritual; Santa Spirito: Holy Spirit. Def.: Pensanta ento senkorpa. Ex.: On dicas ke deo, la anjeli, la mortinta anmi esas spiriti, anke same pri imaginala enti quale fantomi, fei, e.c. — DEFIRS

spis-o: spit (for roasting); -eto: skewer; -agar: to spit (meat for cooking); -o-turn-ilo: turnspit; -ego: spear (cf. lanco). — DeS

splen-o: (anat.) spleen (cf. splino). — DEFRS

splenalgi-o: (med.) splenalgia: stitch in side. — DEFIRS

splendid-a: splendid; -eso: splendo(u)r. Def.: Brilanta; belega; luxoza. Ex.: Palaco splendida. Splendideso di la suno, di la trono. — DEFIS

splenit-o: (med.) splenitis. — DEFI

splin-ar: (intr.) to be splenetic, be in low spirits; -igar: to give the blue devils to (ulu); -o: spleen: hypochondriasis: morbid depression of mind (cf. spleno). — DEFRS

splint-o:
(tech.) small metal pin (used to fasten parts) (cf. stifto); fendita -o: split-pin; -o-ludo: (game) spilikins. — DR

splis-ar: (tr., nav.) to splice; -ilo: splicing-fid, marlingspike. Def.: Specala maniero juntar du kordi per desplekto di l’extremaji e posa riplekto; III-86. — DEF

split-o: splinter, sliver, shiver, (of metal, glass, wood, etc.); -oza: splintery; -igar: to splinter: cause to fly into splinters. V. exp.: Splito esas spano di tote nereguloza formo, dum ke spano havas formo dependanta de la materio e de l’instrumento per qua on laboras ulo; III-488. — De

spoli-ar: (tr.) to spoliate, (des)spoil, rob, pillage, sack, plunder. Def.: Desposedigar ulu, ulo de ulu per fraudo, o violento; for-portar violentoze. Ex.: Spoliar orfano de lua heredajo. Spoliado di urbo. Domo spoliita. — DEFIS

sponde-o: (pros.) spondee. — DEFIRS

sponj-o: sponge; -agar: (tr.) to sponge (a garment, etc.); -ala, -atra: spongy. — EFIS

sponsor-o*: sponsor: person or organization paying the costs of of a project or activity. Sin. meceno.

spontan-a: spontaneous: voluntary, self-acting, -moving. Ex.: spontana genitado. La movi di la kordio esas spontana. Spontaneso di ula ago. — DEFIS

spor-o: (bot.) spore. — DEFIRS

sporadik-a:
sporadic; scattered; (med.) not epidemic. Ex.: Dum ta yaro aparis sporadika kazi di kolero. — DEFIRS

sporangi-o: (bot.) sporangium. — DEFIS

sporn-o: (natural, artificial) spur; -oza, -iz-ita: spurred; -agar: to spur (a horse, etc.); -izar: to put spurs on. — DFI

sporofit-o: (biol.) sporophyte.

sport-o: sport; -ala, ema: sporting, sportive; -ist(ul)o: sportsman; -ar: to take part in sport. — DEFIRS

spot-o: (natural) beauty-spot, mole (on skin) (cf. plastr-eto); variol- -o: pock-mark. — e

spoz-o: spouse: either one of a married couple; -ala: marital, conjugal, connubial; -ulo: husband; -ino: wife; -igar: to make (ulu) one’s spouse, to espouse, wed (ulu); -ul-igar: to wed (a husband); -in-igar: (tr.), -in-eskar: (intr.) to wed (a wife); -ig-anto: person marrying, suitor; ge- -i: husband and wife; grantar ulu kom -o: to give in marriage. V. exp.: vid. mariajar. — EFIS

sprat-o: (ichth.) sprat (Clupea spratus).

spric-ar: (intr.) to spout (out), gush (forth); -igar: to cause (ulo) to spout, to throw up, dash (liquids); makulo: a dash, splash (of liquid). — D

spring-ar: (intr.) to spring: rise upward and go forward with impetuosity; -o: spring, dash, rush, leap, bound (cf. precipitar). Ex.: Il springis e saltis super la fenco. — DE

spros-o: (bot.) shoot, sprout (of a plant). — D

spul-ar: (tr.) to reel: wind on a spool (thread, wire, etc.). — DE

spum-o: foam, froth, spume: -acho: scum (bad sense); -ifar: to foam, froth; -oza, -atra, -if-anta: frothy, seething, foaming; -kuliero: skimmer; blanka -o: white foam; maro- -o: meerschaum; sen-spum-igar: to skim off foam. — EFIS

sput-ar: (tr.) to spit, spit out; -ajo: spit(tle), sputum; -uyo, -vazo: spittoon; sango- -o: spitting of blood. V.exp.: vid. expektorar, saliv-ifar, bavar. — EFI

squadr-o: (set) square: instrument for determining right angles; T- -o: T-square. — IS

squal-o: (ichth.) shark (genus: Squalus). V. exp.: vid. sharko. — FIS

squam-o: scale (of skin, fish, serpents); -oza, -atra: scaly, squamous. Def.: La lameneti qui dependas de la pelo (di fishi, serpenti, e.c.); VI-603. — EFIS

squat-ar: (intr.) to squat down (on one’s hams or heels) (cf. blotisar). — E

«squatter»:
squatter (on land).

squil-o: (bot.) squill, sea-onion (Scilla maritima).

st!: hist! sh!

stab-o:
staff (army, etc.); -oficiro: s. officer. — DeR

stabil-a: stable; -eso: stability, consistence, steadiness; -igar: (tr.), -eskar: (intr.) to stabilize. Def.: Qua esas en stando, en situeso ferma, solida. Ex.: Stabila equilibro. Stabileso di edifico. — DEFIS

stabl-o: stable (for beasts); -o-fako: stall (in s.); bovo- -o: cattle s.; lojigar kavalo en -o: to stable a horse. — DEFIS

stac-ar: (intr.) to stand (upright), be standing; -(ad)o: standing (up); being on one’s feet; -ant-a, -e: standing, upright, on end; -igar: to cause (ulu, ulo) to stand; -eskez: stand up!; -ig-ilo: stand (as for camera, telescope, etc.). Ex.: La monumento ankore stacas. Ol stacas vertikale. V.exp.: vid. erektar. — I

stacion-o: (building and place) station; R.R. depot; (R.C. relig.) station (cf. gar-eyo); -navo: s. ship. Ex.: Fervoyala staciono. Katoliko facas sua stacioni en la kirko. — DEFIS

stacionar-a: steady, stationary: not moving or changing at the time; -eso: steadiness. Ex.: La temperaturo povas esas stacionara, anke la stando di morbi, di arti. V. exp.: Stacionara ne esas la sama ideo kam fixa: ol esas plu proxima ad konstanta, ma indikas konstanteso en movo, per quaza equilibro sempre ruptebla; konstanteso di ulo, qua povas variar en omna momento, o fixeso nur semblanta e rezultanta (stacionara ondi); III-268. — DEFIS

stadi-o: (Gr. measure and place for gymnastic contests) stadium. — DEFIRS

stafil-o: (bot.) bladder-nut (pod); -iero: b.n. tree (genus: Staphylea).

stafisagr-o: (bot.) stavesacre (Delphinium Staphisagria). — FISL

stagn-ar: (intr.) to stagnate (of liquids); be at a standstill; -anta: stagnant. Ex.: Stagno di aquo od stagnanta aquo. (fig.) Mea aferi, komerco stagnas. — DEFIS

stakis-o: (bot.) hedge-nettle, wound-wort (genus: Stachys; cf. vulnerario).

stal-o: steel; -a: of steel; -ala: steely; relating to s.; -atra: s.-like; -ifar: (intr.), -igar: (tr.) to make, convert into s.; -if-erio: s.works; -aji: s.wares. — DeR

stalagmit-o: (min.) stalagmite. — DEFIRS

stalaktit-o: (min.) stalactite. — DEFIRS

stamin-o: (bot.) stamen. — EFIS

stamp-ar:
(tr.) to stamp: imprint on the surface of something; -(ad)o, -uro: stamp(ing); -ilo: a stamp; postala -o: postal mark (N.B. not postage stamp; cf. posto-marko); ica letro havas Angla posto-marko e la postal stampuro di London: this letter bears an English postage stamp and the postal mark of London. Ex.: Stampar la libro-titulo sur la binduro. V.exp.: vid. puncar. — DEFR

stan-o: tin; -a: (made) of tin; -oza: tinny, stannic; -izar: to cover (ulo) with tin; -folio: tin-foil; -vazo: a tin pot, pewter; kupro- -o: pewter. (N.B. Not tin-plate; cf. lado). — EFIS

stanc-o: stanza. — DEFIRS

stand-ar: (intr.) to be in a certain state, relative condition; to be in good or bad health; -o: state, stand, condition: state of being, manner of existing; quale vu standas? La stando di mea saneso esas bona: How are you? I am well; quale vu aferi standas? How is your business? Plu-bon-igar la stando di aferi: to better the condition of a business (or of affairs). V. exp.: vid. situar. — DE

standard-o: (milit.) standard, ensign, flag; -port-isto; -iero: s.-bearer (cf. flago, banero). Def.: La nacional insigno, fixigita per un vertikal latero, sive a stango (teral armeo), sive a kordo (naval armeo): III-31. — DEFIRS

stang-o: bar (of wood or metal), rod, pole; leg (of a table); stem (of a candlestick, etc); stock (of a key, nail, anchor); piston- -o: piston-rod; vito- -o: vine-pole; -izar: to pole (vines, etc.). — DI

stapeli-o: (bot.) genus: Stapelia. — EFI

stapl-o: distributing point for goods, as a seaport or large inland city, staple-mart or entrepot. — De

starch-ar: (tr.) to (stiffen with) starch; (fig.) to stiffen; -ita: starched; (fig. of style) stiff, formal; -ivo: starch (for linen). Def.: Rigidigar per amilo. — DE

«starost»:
(title) starost.

start-ar: (tr., intr.) to start: set going, cause to act (as a machine, train, sport). Ex.: Me startas la motoro. La motoro startas facile. On povas startar la motoro di automobilo sen departigar la veturo. Starto di konkurso. — DE

starter-o:
starter (of a race). Def.: Ta qua direktas, imperas la departo; IV-338. — DEFIRS

stat-o:
(political) state; -ala aferi: state affairs; -o-stroko: a stroke of state policy. — DEFIRS

statik-o: (phys.) statics; -ala: static(al). — DEFIRS

statistik-o: statistic(s); -ala: statistical; -isto: statistician. — DEFIRS

stativ-o: (photo.) easel.

statolit-o: (bot.) statolith.

stator-o: (elec.) stator.

statu-o: statue; -eto: statuette; marmora -o: marble s.; kavalk-ala -o: equestrian s. — DEFIRS

statur-o: stature; -mezur-ilo: instrument to measure height. Def.: Alteso naturala di persono od animalo. Ex.: Alta-statura homo, od, homo di alta staturo. — DEFIS

statut-o: statute, written decree or law; by-law; article (of association; cf. lego); -ala: statutory. — DEFIRS

stearin-o: (chem.) stearin(e). — DEFIRS

steatit-o:
(min.) steatite: soapstone. — DEFIS

steb-ar: (tr.) to quilt, to (pad and) stitch; to stitch (with a machine); -mashino: sewing machine. V.exp.: Stebar esas sutar per mashino, quo ne esas propre sutado, nam mashino uzas generale du fili, e la sutado nur un; II-646.

stek-ar: (tr.) to stick: thrust point in, drive in (by point); (hort.) to propagate by cuttings or slips (cf. spros-ifar); -ajo: (hort.) slip, cutting. Def.: Enirigar ulo en ulo per la pinto. Ex.: Stekar paliso en la sulo. — DE

stej-o*: (theat.) stage.

stel-o: (also fig. and theat.) (fixed) star; -eto: small star; (print.) asterisk; -ala: stellar; -oza: (natural) starry: full of stars; -iz-ita: (artificial) studded or covered with stars; spangled; -atra, -o-forma: starlike, star-shaped; stelliform; -o-lumo: starlight; -izar: to star: stud, cover (ulo) with stars; -aro: constellation; matin- -o: morning star; polo- -o: polar star. V. exp.: vid. astro. — EFIS

stelari-o: (bot.) starwort (genus: Stellaria).

stele-o: (archeol.) stele: a graved stone. — DEFI

stelionat-o:
(jur.) stellionate: fraud in selling. — DEFIS

stelt-o, -i: stilt(s); -irar: (intr.) to walk on stilts; -ucelo, -iero: (orni.) stilt-bird (order Grallæ). — DE

stencil-o*: stencil.

stenograf-ar: (tr.) to take down (ulo) in short-hand; -ado, -arto, -uro: (act, art, result) stenography. — DEFIRS

stenotip-ar: (tr.) stenotype.

stentor-o: (antiq.) Stentor: a person with a powerful voice; -ala: stentorian: extremely loud. Ex.: Stentorala voco. — DEFS

step-o: steppe: treeless (Russian) plain. — DEFIRS

ster-o: stere, cubic meter (metre): 35.3174 cu.ft. — DEFIRS

stereofoni-o: (2001) stereophony. — EFS

stereografi-o: stereography. — DEFIRS

stereokamer-o: stereotrope; stereopticon. — DEFIS

stereometri-o: (geom.) stereometry. — DEFIRS

stereoskop-o: stereoscope. — DEFIRS

stereotip-ar: (tr.) to stereotype; (fig.) to fix firmly or unchangeably (cf. klishar); -uro, -ajo: stereo(plate). — DEFIRS

stereotomi-o: stereotomy. — DEFIRS

steril-a: sterile, barren, unfruitful; (fig.) fruitless, vain (cf. arida); -eso: sterility; -igar: to sterilize; -ig-ilo: sterilizer; -a roko: barren rock. Ex.: Sterila persono, arboro, tereno, autoro, diskuto. Steriligar aquo, filtro, vazo. Ant.: fekunda, fertila. — DEFIRS

sterk-o: dung (-litter), muck (cf. dungo); -izar: to manure, dung; -amaso: dung-heap; -aquo: liquid manure; -skarabeo: (ent.) coprophagan; dung-beetle. Def.: La dungo formacita ek la exkrementi di animali (mixita kun palio); VI-248. — SL

sterlet-o: (ichth.) sterlet (Acipenser Ruthenus). — DEFR

stern-ar: (tr.) to lay (ulu, su) down at full length. — L

sternum-o: (anat.) sternum, breastbone. — DEFIS

sternut-ar: (intr.) to sneeze (cf. snortar); -(ad)o: sneez(e)ing, sternutation. — EFIS

steroid-o: (2001) steroid. — DEFIRS

sterol-o: (2001) sterol. — DEFIRS

stertor-ar: (intr.) to have a death rattle; to have a rattle in the throat (from respiratory trouble). — SL

stetoskop-o:
(med.) stethoscope. — DEFIS

stif-a: (relationship) step-; -a fili-ino: step-daughter (cf. bo-fili-ino); -a matro: step-mother (cf. bo-matro); -a frat-ino: step-sister. V. exp.: Stifa signifikas la parenteso, qua rezultas de duesma mariajo di un de la gepatri. Mea stifa frato esas la filio de la (duesma) spozo di mea patro; do lu esas nek mea frato nek mea mi-frato, nam lu havas nula patro komuna kun me. La spozo ipsa di mea patro esas mea stifa patro (patro o matro); lu esas tote diversa de mea bo-patro (-ulo od -ino), qua esas patro di mea spozo (-ulo od -ino); VI-489.

stift-o: peg: small pin of wood or metal used for fastening hinges, frames, clocks, etc.; -agar, -unionar, -stopar: to peg, fasten with pegs (ulo); stopo- -o: spigot, bung-stopper (as for casks). — DR

stigmat-o: brand (of a hot iron); (bot.) stigma; scar of a wound (cf. cikatro); (pl. theol.) stigmata (of Christ); (entom.) stigmati (on the tracheæ); (fig.) stigma: mark of infamy; -izar: to mark with a brand or with scars; (fig.) to set a mark of disgrace on (ulu, ulo). Ex.: La stigmato di puniso, di la variolo, di vicio, sur la korpo di Francisko di Assisi. Variolo (e metafore, krapulado) stigmatizas la vizajo. Me stigmatizas ta aserto kom mentio. — DEFIRS

stil-o: (lit., artist) style, tone, manner; diction: selection of words (cf. diciono); (bot. and antiq.) style; -eto: (fig.) (surg. probe) stylet; -isto: stylist: master of style; -oida: (anat.) styloid. Ex.: Moblaro segun la stilo di Louis XIV. Stilo moderna, historiala. Ta auturo havas bona stilo. — DEFRS

stilet-o:
stiletto: short pointed dagger.

stilistik-o: stylistics. Def.: Cienco o teorio di stilo; IV-707. — E

stilobat-o: (arch.) stylobate. — DEFIS

stimul-ar: (tr.) to stimulate, rouse, excite; to spur on, incite; to goad (oxen) (cf. ecitar); -ivo, -ilo: stimulant, stimulus; (fig.) goad, spur. Ex.: Intereso stimulas la mento. Lua indolenteso bezonas stimulivo. Porciono stimulanta. Stimul-ilo por bovuli. Stimulita da hungro. Ant.: stupor-igar. — DEFIRS

stip-o: (bot.) stem, stalk (of plant); -eto: blade (of grass). — L

stipendi-o: (in public schools or colleges) exhibition, scholarship, bursary (in Scotland): a sum of money granted to pay, wholly or in part, the expenses of a pupil’s education; -iero: a foundation scholar. — DeIR

stipit-o: (bot.) stipe. — EFIS

stiptik-a: styptic: stopping bleeding (cf. astrikt-iva). — EFIS

stipul-ar: (tr.) to stipulate; -o, -uro: stipulation. Ex.: Stipular garantio. Stipuluro di kontrato. — DEFIS

stipul-o:
(bot.) stipule. — EFIS

stiv-ar: (tr., nav.) to stow (a cargo), trim (a hold); -isto: stevedore. — eIS

stof-o: stuff, fabric, tissue, cloth: any woven fabric; lana -o: woollen stuff, woollen cloth. — DEFI

stoik-a: (philos. and fig.) stoic(al): unaffected by passion; -(ul)o: a stoic; -ala: stoical; -eso, -ismo: (quality, doctrine) stoicism. Ex.: Stoika vertuo. Zeno esis stoiko e docis stoikismo. Ica homo manifestas stoikeso. Stoikala doktrino. — DEFIRS

stok-o:
(com.) stock. Def.: Quanto de komercaji o pekunio disponebla da vendisto. Ex.: Stoko de frumento. Stoko en magazino. Stoko de oro en banko. — DEF

stol-o: (R.C. relig.) stole. — DEFIS

stolon-o: (bot.) stolon: running of a creeping plant.

stomak-o: (anat.) stomach (cf. abdomeno, ventro); -ala: stomachic, gastric; -dolori: s.ache (cf. gastralgio); -spasmo: s. griping; -membrano, -tripo: tripe. — EFIS

stomatit-o: (2001) stomatitis. — DEFIRS

stomatologi-o: (med.) (2001) stomatology: science dealing with the mouth and its disorders. — DEFIRS

ston-o: pebble, small stone, loose rock (cf. petro, roko); -oza: full of (small) stones, pebbly, flinty (of roads, etc.); -izar: to macadamize, gravel, ballast: cover with small stones; -agar, -asomar, -mortigar: to stone (kill); sen- -igar: to clear (ulo) of stones; (fig.) stone mort-inta, surda, blinda. e.c.: stone dead, deaf, blind; kruda- -o: uncut stone, rough ashlar (opp. of quadro). — DE

stop-ar: (tr.) to stop up, choke up, stuff up (a hole, bottle, etc.; cf. obstruktar, obturar); -ilo: stopper; stop-gap; korka -ilo: cork; -il-ego: bung; des- -ar: to unstop. — DE

stor-o: roller-blind, spring-blind or curtain (cf. jelozio, persieno). — FS

storax-o: (bot., pharm.) storax. Def.: Speco di balzamio; IV-707. — DEFIS

stoter-ar: (tr., intr.) to stammer, stutter, lisp from natural defect). V. exp.: Balbutado eventas che l’infanti, pro ne-habileso, o che l’adulti pro pavoro od altra emoco; kontre ke stoterado esas konstanta defekto di pronuncado; IV-518. — DE

strab-a:
squint-, cross-eyed; -(ul)o: squint-eyed person; -eso: squinting (condition), strabismus; -esar: to squint. — EFIRS

strad-o: street; -eto: small s.; lane (in town); alley, court; -angulo: s. corner; -o transversa: cross-street; -o-bubo: a s. urchin; -o-vend-isto: s. peddler; vagar tra la -i: to rove about the streets. — DEI

strand-ar: (intr., also fig.) to strand: run aground or on shore: -igar: to run (a ship, boat) aground, to beach. — DE

strangular: (tr.) to strangle, choke, stifle, throttle (ulu); (cf. asfixiar, sufokar, garot-agar); Def.: Mortigar per presar la trakeo; perdigar, haltar la respirado. Ex.: Li strangulis per kordo. Il mortis pro stranguleso. (fig.) strangular ula cienco, ula arto. — DEFIS

stranj-a: strange, unusual, uncommon, odd, singular, queer (cf. baroka); -eso: strangeness, oddness, queerness; -ajo: a strange thing, oddity, curiosity. Def.: Qua esas kontre kustumo, ordinara experienco, kustumala ordino, la komuna raciono. Ex.: Stranja dicajo, bruiso, aranjo, vivo. Esas stranja ke il ne ja advenas. La stranjeso di lua vestaro, di lua konduto. — EFIR

stranjer-a: foreign, not native; (fig.) extraneous (jur.) irrelevant; -(ulo): a foreigner; -ajo: an extraneous body; (chem., surg.) a foreign substance. Def.: Qua esas de altra naciono; qua ne apartenas ad korpo. Ex.: Stranjera lando; linguo, milito, aferi, relati. Trovar ulo stranjera (kontre-natura) en korpo. Argumento stranjera (ne-apartenanta, ne aplikebla) a la kazo, proceso, temo. Note: The E. word «stranger» is ordinarily to be translated by ne-konocato: He is a stranger to me: me tote ne konocas il: il esas ne-konocata da me. — EFIS

strapad-ar:
(tr.) to inflict strappado on (ulu). — EFIS

stras-o: strass: a brilliant glass used for artificial gems; a paste (diamond). — DEFIRS

strat-o: (geol.) stratum: layer; -igar: (tr.), -ifar: (intr.) to stratify; -ig-(ad)o, -if-(ad)o: stratification; sablo- -o: layer of sand; sand-bank; -o-sfero: stratosphere; ostro- -o: oyster-bank. — EFIS

strateg-o: (antiq.) strategus: a general.

strategi-o: strategy; -ala: strategical; -isto: strategist. Ex.: Napoleon esis maestro do strategio. Jomini esis strategiisto. Strategiala pozicino. — DEFIRS

strek-o: stroke, dash (as of a pen); (print.) dash; (geom.) a straight line; -eto, junto-streko: short dash; (print.) hyphen; tra- -izar: to draw a line through, strike out. Ex.: On formacas ta litero per du plumo-streki. Note: The use of the streko in printing does not, as in E., indicate merely an interruption, but a change of subject or speaker; (cf. Talmey’s Text Book, p. 104; IV-533). — De

stren-ar: (tr., tech.) to strain (materials). — E

streptokok-o: (path.) steptococcus.

stret-a: narrow, strait; (fig.) limited, scanty; -e: narrowly; -eso: narrowness; -igar: to narrow; -eskar: to become narrower, shrink; tro-stret-igar: to scant (cf. meskin-igar); -a mento: a narrow mind; marala -ajo: a strait. Ex.: Streta voyo, rubando, enireyo. Ant.: larja. — EIS

stri-o: stripe, stria; -izar: to streak, stripe; -oza: (natural), -iz-ita: (artificial) streaked, striped; stri-rolero: rowell (of a bit). Def.: Lineo trasita o grabita sur surfaco per akutajo; lineo o tre dina kanelo (ne bendo); IV-463. Ex.: Vitro o spegulo, sur qua on frotis diamanto o silexo, havas strii. Glacierala strii. La kapo di ula skrubi esas striizita, por ke on povas manuagar li plu facile. — EFIS

strid-ar: (intr.) to produce a strident noise, to creak; -anta: strident, shrill, creaking, grating. Def.: Produktar sono akra e penetranta. Ex.: Cikadi, gondo-bendi stridas. Voco stridanta. — EFIS

strig-o: barn-, white-, screech-owl (genus: Strix flammea). Def.: Noktala raptema ucelo di qua la facio esas ornita per plumoza koliaro kompleta; IV-296. — L

strigl-o: curry-comb; -agar: to curry (a horse). — DFI

strik-ar: (intr., of workmen) to strike, to go on strike, quit work: -anto: striker. — DE

striknin-o: (med.) strychnine. — DEFIRS

strikt-a: strict, precise, rigorous; -e: strictly; -eso: strictness. Def.: Des-ampla; IV-434. Ex.: Strikta senco, obligo, devo, en aferi. To esas strikte vera. Strikte parolanta. — DEFIS

stringer-o:
(nav.) stringer. — DER

strip-o: trouser-strap (under the foot). — DR

stroboskop-o: (2001) stroboscope. — DEFIRS

strof-o: strophe. — DEFIRS

strofoid-o:
(geom.) strophoid. — DEFIS

strok-o: indicates a single movement, an elementary, sudden act: stroke, coup, feat; (in game) move; (fencing) thrust; (of dice) throw; (rowing) stroke; (of whips) smack; alo- -o: wing-beat; (fig.) bril-anta -o: striking act, brilliant feat; cizo- -o: single cut with scissors; fortunoza -o: happy move, thrust, hit, etc.; piston -o: stroke of piston; perfida -o: treacherous act; prepar-ita -o: got-up affair; probo- -o: trial, first attempt; plum- -o: stroke of the pen; pinsel- -o: dash, stroke of brush; fola -o: foolish trick, move, act; lim-(ilo)- -o: stroke of a file; reto- -o: cast of net; stroko di stato: stroke of state, violent or quick exercise of state authority; il facis la stroko: he has done the deed; stroko di teatro: theatrical effect; clap-trap; yun-es-ala stroko: juvenile trick; youthful act of folly; -ar: to do the act called for by the ideas above defined; vu strokos pos me: it is your turn after mine.

stronci-o: (chem.) strontium. — DEFIRS

strop-o: (nav.) strop, strap, sling (for a block, or piece of cargo); -izar, -ligar: to strop (a block); to sling (casks, etc.). — DEFIRS

struch-o: ostrich (genus: Struthio [camelus]); -ovo: ostrich egg. — L

struktur-o: structure: manner of building, construction, form; (fig.) disposition, arrangement. Ex.: Ta edifico havas stabila strukturo. La strukturo di la vivanta korpo, di poemo. — DEFIRS

strum-o: goitre, wen in the throat; -oza, -ika; -ozo, -iko: goitrous (person).

student-o, -ulo, -ino: student; undergraduate (cf. lern-anto). Ex.: Studento pri lego. Medicin-studento. — DEFIRS

studi-ar: (tr., intr.) to study (ulo, pri ulo) (cf. lernar); -(ad)o: (act) study(ing); -uro: (result) a study; (paint.) sketch; -eyo: place for study; -eyo di artisto: studio, «atelier»; -ema: studious; -o-kapo: a head for study (by artist); pre- -ar: to make a preliminary study of; par- -ar: to make a complete study of. Ex.: Studiar piktado, portreto, matematiko, leciono. Kurso di studii. — DEFIS

stuf-ar: (tr., cook) to stew; -o-vazo: stewing-pot; -ita bov-yuno: stewed veal. V. exp.: vid. stuvo. — EFIS

stuk-o: stucco; -ajo: s. work; -izar: to cover with s. — DEFIRS

stul-o: chair: seat with back (cf. tabureto, benko); -ego: large c., arm-c.; -ego ocil-anta: rocking c.; -ego longa: lounging c., deck c., -if-isto: c. maker; porto- -o: sedan c.; rul- -o: bath-c.; truo- -o: night-stool. — DeR

stult-a: foolish, silly, senseless (cf. frivola); -(ul)o: fool, booby, simpleton (cf. naiv-(ul)o); -eso: silliness, folly; -ajo: silly thing; foolish act; absurdity. V. exp.: Stulta expresas ideo min forta kam stupida. Stupideso esas kompleta manko di inteligenteso. Stulteso esas plu juste manko di sagaceso, di judikado; II-711. Ant.: saja. I

stump-o:
stump (of tree, limb, column, cabbage, etc.); core (of an apple); -igar: to truncate; -a pedo: club-foot. — DE

stunt-ar: (tr.) to stunt (growth of); -esar: to be stunted; -ita: stunted. Def.: Impedar la kresko e developo di ulu, ulo; IV-512. — E

stup-o: tow; (tech.) packing (of a piston, etc.); gudr-iz-ita stupo, gudro-stupo: oakum; -izar: to stop or cover with tow or oakum; (nav.) to calk (caulk); (tech.) to pack (a piston, etc.); -o-buxo: stuffing-box. V. exp.: vid. filaso. — FIS

stupid-a: stupid: without intelligence; -(ul)o: a s. person; -ajo: s. act; -igar: to make (ulu) s.; stultify, besot, dull. Ex.: Homi obtuza e stupida. Mieno stupida. Mala traktado stupidigas infanto. V. exp.: vid. stulta. Ant.: inteligenta. — DEFIS

stupor-ar: (intr.) to cause a stupor, to stupefy.

stupor-o: (med.) stupor; Ex.: La stuporo de ebrieso. — EFIS

sturg-o: (ichth.) (common) sturgeon (Acipenser Sturio) (cf. esturjono). — EFIS

sturm-ar: )intr.) to storm; -o: storm, with thunder and lightning, thunderstorm; (fig.) tumult. V. exp.: Sturmo; mala vetero konsistanta ek fulmini, tondri, akompanata o sequata generale da pluvo o grelo. Tempesto: mala vetero konsistanta ek granda vento, qua sur la maro efektigas ondegi danjeroza por la navigado, e qua ofte akompanesas da pluvo. L’unesma fenomeno povas eventar sen vento; la duesma konsistas esence en vento, e povas eventar, sive sen pluvo o grelo, sive sen ula elektrala fenomeno; VIII-198. — DE

sturn-o: (orni.) starling (genus: Sturnus). — FIS

stuv-o: a stove or room used to produce hot air for drying, or hot vapo(u)r for sweating; sweating room; hot-air bath; vapo(u)r-bath; drying-room; -agar: to dry or heat in a slow, moist heat; (med.) to foment (a wound) (cf. furnelo). V. exp.: On stufas koquajo en irga vazo klozita, e ne en stuvo. Existas stuvi humida e sika, t.e. kun o sen aquo-vaporo; II-648. — EFIS

su: (reflex. Pronoun, 3rd person, singular or plural; acc.: sun) : self, oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves; -a: (pl.: sui) his, hers, its, their; su-dic-anta: self-styled, so called. Ex.: Li ne konkordas inter su. Il amas sua matro. Il ri-trovis elua libri, ma il ne povis ritrovar sui (pl.). La soldati defensis su brave. Egoisto sorgas nur por su (ipsa). Note: Su is used in the third person only and refers directly to the subject: il lavas su: he washes himself; li lavas su: they wash themselves; singlu por su: each one for himself. But, me lavas me: I wash myself; vu lavas vu: you wash tourself. Su, lu: Petro pregis Karlo defensar su: Peter asked Charles to defend him (su relates to Karlo who is the subject of defensar) (cf. Talmey’s Text Book, p. 65-6). — DFIS

sub: (prep.) under, below, beneath; lower in place or rank; denoting subordination, dependence; -e: (there) under, underneath, below; -a: under, subordinate; -a bush-aro: underbrush. Ex.: sub la tablo. Servar sub ulu. Il havas cent soldati sub sua komando. Il esas nur suba oficiro. Suba etajo. V. exp.: vid. alta. Ant.: super. — DEFI

sub-admiral-o: rear-admiral.

subaltern-a, -(ul)o: (milit. and fig.) subaltern (officer) (cf. subordin-ito). — DEFIS

sub-chef-o: chief-assistant.

sub-deleg-ar: (tr.) to subdelegate. Def.: Donar ad altru la povo agar vice su.

sub-destrukt-ar: (tr., fig.) to undermine: to injure or destroy by clandestine means (cf. minar).

sub-diakon-o: subdeacon.

sub-direkt-anto, -ero, -isto: sub-manager, -director.

sub-divid-ar: (tr.) to subdivide; -o, -uro: subdivision.

sub-doc-isto: assistant teacher.

sub-cherp-ar: (tr.) to draw off (liquors, etc., from the bottom; vid. rakar).

sub-emend-o, -uro: additional amendment, amendment to an amendment.

sub-entraprez-isto: sub-contractor; jobber.

sub-farm-ar:
(tr.) to farm (land, taxes) as an under-lessee.

sub-gener-o: sub-genus.

sub-grup-o: sub-group.

sub-help-anto, -isto: under-assistant.

subis-ar:
(tr.) to undergo, endure, bear; -ar tormento: to undergo tortures; -ar yugo: to bear a yoke; -ar destino: to submit to one’s destiny. Def.: Recevar force o kontrevole; III-207. Ex.: Ica korpo subisas kompreso. — FI

subit-a: sudden, unexpected; -e: suddenly, all of a sudden; -eso: suddenness. Def.: qua esas tote ne-previdita. Ex.: Subita morto, chanjo di la vetero. — FIS

sub-jac-ar: (intr.) to lie under; -anta: subjacent, underlying.

subjekt-o: (gram., log.) subject (cf. temo); -ala: (philos.) subjective (opp. to objekt-ala); -al-eso: subjectivity. Ex.: La subjekto di verbo, di propoziciono. Subjektala metodi, koncepti. — DEFIRS

subjuntiv-o:
(gram.) subjunctive. — DEFIS

sub-jup-o: petticoat, (short) underskirt.

sub-klas-o:
sub-class, subdivision of a class.

sub-komitat-o:
subcommittee.

sub-lang-a: (anat.) sublingual.

sub-lietnant-o:
sub-lieutenant; second-lieutenant; ensign.

sublim-a: sublime; -eso: sublimity; -ajo: sublime object. Ex.: Sublima abnego, genio. — DEFIS

sublim-ar:
(tr., chem.) to sublime, sublimate; -(ad)o: sublimation; -ato: a sublimate. Def.: Vaporigar ulo e lore rikondensar ol a stando solida. — DEFIRS

sub-lokac-ar:
(tr.) to under-hire, sub-rent, sublet (by tenant) (ulo, de ulu) (cf. sub-lugar).

sub-lug-ar:
(tr.) to under-lease, sub-rent (by the proprietor) (ulo ad ulu) (cf. sub-lokacar).

sub-lun-a:
sublunar(y).

sub-mar-a: submarine: undersea; submersed.

submers-ar: (tr.) to submerge (under water) (cf. inundar); -o-navo: submarine (boat). Ex.: Nil periodale submersas Egiptia. V. exp.: vid. imersar. — EFIS

submis-ar: (tr.) to reduce (ulu) to a state of submission, dependence, to subdue, subjugate; -ar su: to submit, yield, succumb (cf. vinkar, domptar, cedar, subisar, prizentar, submisionar); -o: subjection (act); -eso: submission, submissiveness, compliance (cf. obedi-em-eso); -ita: subdued, subjugated. Ex.: Submisar la rebeli, sua pasioni. Me submisas me a vua decido. La submiso di la urbo. Ica populo submisesas (facis sua submiso) ed esas nun en (stando di) perfekta submiseso. — EFIS

submision-ar: (intr.) to (make a) tender (por, pri) (a contract, loan); -o: tender; -anto, -into: party making tender, contract. V. exp.: Submisionar esas: propozar su por entraprezar ula laboro (generale publika), aceptante la kondicioni anuncita da la labor-donanto, e demandante ula preco. Generale, plura entraprezisti esas invitata submisionar samtempe per letri siglita e sekreta, ed on adjudikas l’entraprezo a ta qua demandas la minima preco. To esas speco di auciono, o prefere, inversajo di auciono: vice vendar a la maxim-ofranto, on «kompras» de la minim-demandanto; VI-385. — DF

sub-oficir-o: non-commissioned officer, petty officer.

subordin-ar:
(tr., ad) to (make) subordinate, subject (ulu, ulo, ad ulu, ulo); -(ad)o, -eso: subordination; -ita: subordinate(d); -ito: a subordinate; inferior; -ite: subordinately. Ex.: La guvernerio subordinas la civitani a la judiciisti. La legi subordinas la civitani a la judiciala oficisti. Subordinar sua volo ad altru. Mantenar subordineso en la armeo. Propoziciono subordinita. La chefo fidas a lua subordinati (od inferiori, od imperati). — DEFIRS

suborn-ar: (tr.) to suborn: induce or instigate (ulu, uli) to do an evil deed, by bribes or the like; to bribe, tamper with (cf. seduktar, koruptar); -o, -eso: subornation, bribery; -ar testi: to bribe witnesses; -ebla: venal; -ebl-eso: venality. — EFIS

sub-pel-a: subcutaneous.

subrekarg-o: (com., nav.) supercargo.

subrept-ar:
(tr.) to obtain surreptiously; -o: subreption; -ala: surreptitious. — EFIS

subret-o: (theat.) soubrette, abigail. — DEFR

subrog-ar: (tr., jur.) to surrogate, subrogate, substitute. — DEFIS

subsidi-ar: (tr.) to subsidize: grant a subsidy to (ulu); -o: subsidizing, subsidy; sum granted. Ex.: Subsidiar paketboto. La subsidiajo esis 50 mili, ma mem ca subsidio ne esis suficanta. — DEFIRS

sub-skrib-ar:
(tr., intr.) to write below, underneath (cf. signatar); -uro: what is written below (cf. sur-skrib-uro). Ex.: Noto skribita sub texto o letro esas subskribita, quankam la subskriburo ne esas signatita da la skribinto.

substanc-o:
substance; -ala: substantial (cf. esenco). Exd.: Substanci korpala, metala, liquida. Esis multa vorti ma nula substanco en la diskurso. Indemno substancala. Griza substanco di la cerebro. — DEFIS

substantiv-o: (gram.) substantive, noun; -igar: to substantivize: to convert into, or use as, a substantive. — DEFIS

substituc-ar: (tr.) to substitute: put in place of another (ulu ad ulu, ulo ad ulo) (jur.) to entail (an estate); -ato: a substitute. V. exp.: A remplasas (E.: takes the place of) B = A okupas (provizore o definitive) la loko (ofico, funciono, rolo) di B. A remplas-eskas = A prenas (komencas okupar la loko di B, pozas su od aparas en la loko di B. C remplas-igas B per A = C pozas (o produktas) A en la loko antee okupita da B. En la sama kazo, C substitucas A a B, od, C remplasigas B per A (E. puts A in place of B). Praktikal regulo: Omnafoye kande la propoziciono kontenas tri termini, on devas uzar remplas-igar o substitucar, ne remplasar. Uzez la prepoziciono «ad» kun substitucar, ne «per». Uzez «per» kun remplas-igar. (Substitucar un kozo ad ultra; remplas-igar un kozo per altra; do, en la pasivo: remplasata da … remplasigata per … e substitucata a ….. ); III-102. V-283; kp. suplantar, suplear. — DEFIS

substitut-o: (jur.) deputy magistrate, surrogate. V. exp.: Substituto esas la nomo di ofico di persono; por la kozi ni havas surogato; IV-583. — DEFIS

subsum-ar:
(tr., log.) to subsume. — DEFIS

sub-strek-izar: to underline.

sub-tas-o: saucer; -ego: salver.

sub-ten-ar: (tr.) to support (by holding underneath; cf. sustenar, apogar). Ex.: Ta trabo subtenas la konstrukturo.

sub-ter-a: subterranean; -ajo: subsoil.

sub-ter-etajo: basement (below ground), underground floor or chamber.

subterfuj-o: subterfuge (cf. pretexto, ruzo). — EFIS

subtil-a: (physical) subtile: not dense or gross; (mental) subtile, subtle: keen, sharp, acute; -eso, -ajo: (quality, objective) subtleness, subtility; -ach-ajo: subtlety (in bad sense), quibble, hair-splitting distinction; -igar: to subtilize: render fine or ethereal; to draw subtle distinctions in, refine into niceties. Ex.: Subtila veneno, polvo. Subtila intelekto, mento. La subtilaji di metafiziko. Troa subtileso nocas argumento. — DEFIS

sub-titul-o: (print.) sub-heading, second title.

sub-urb-o: suburb, outskirts (of a town, city; cf. pre-urbo); -ala: suburban; -ano: suburbanite.

subvencion-ar: (tr.) to grant a subvention to, subsidize; -o: subvention: government aid or bounty (cf. subsidiar). Ex.: Subvenciono di teatro di la stato. — DEFIS

subvers-ar: (tr.) to subvert: overturn from the foundation: bring to ruin or destrucion, as by moral or political force (cf. renversar); -o, -eso: (act, state) subversion, ruin; -anta, -iva, -ema: subversive. Ex.: Ta doktrino subversas la principi di etiko. Subverso di la stato per anarkio. Doktrino subversiva. — DEFIS

sub-vest-o: undergarment; -aro: underwear.

suced-ar: (tr., intr.) to succeed: came after, follow in order (cf. sequar; sucesar); -o, -ado: succession; -anto, -into (di): successor; -anta: successive subsequent; -e, -ante: successively, in succession, inturn; -ar (od, inter-sequar) l’una l’altra: to succeed, follow one another. Ex.: Jorno sucedas la nokto. La sucedado di nia idei. Louis XII esis la sucedanto di Charles VIII. Chapitri sucedanta. — DEFIS

suces-ar:
(intr.) to succeed: accomplish one’s purpose, be successful; -o: success; -anta, -oza: successful; mi- -o: indifferent success. Ex.: Lu sucesas en sua entraprezajo. La suceso di teatrajo. La verko ne esis tre sucesoza. — EFIS

suci-ar: (tr.) to care about: be concerned, solicitous, anxious about (ulu, ulo); -o: -ego: (mental) care, solicitude, anxiety; -anta, -oza, -ema: solicitous, anxious, careworn; sen- -a: careless, thoughtless; me ne -as: I do not care. Def.: Havar sua spirito okupata pri o por la bona stando di persono o kozo amata; VI-345. V. exp.: Suciar, sorgar, flegar: Sorg(ad)o esas ago, kontre sucio esas mentala stando. Exempli: Matro povas suciar sua infanto, ma konfidas a la nutristino la sorgo pri lu. On flegas malado, infanto. On ne povas dicar, ke ta matro ne sucias sua filieto, nam elua paroli klare montras, ke sempre el pensas a lua stando e deziras ke ol esez bona; ma fakte el sorgas lu nultempe, nam el abandonas a lua nutristino omna sorgi, quin el devus ipse facar a l’infanto. Mea tutelanto ne nur suciis mea saneso e feliceso, ma il sorgis li omnamaniere, ed il esis quik extreme nequieta, kande me sentis irga sufreto. Yes, nun me esas nequieta pri la mala stando di vua aferi; ma li ne esus tante desesperiganta, se olim vu esabus plu sucioza o suciema pri oli; VI-345. — F

sucin-o: (yellow) amber; -ea: amber colo(u)red. — FIS

sud-o: south; -ala: southern, southerly; -e: southward; -esto: south-east; -ano: a southerner. — DFIRS

sudari-o: sudarium; shroud (cf. sepulto-tuko).

sudor-o: sweat, perspiration; -ifar: to perspire, be in a sweat; -if-anta: sweating, sudoriferous; -if-igar: to cause (ulu) to sweat; -if-egar: to perspire profusely; -if-ig-iva, -ivo: (med.) sudorific. — EFIS

sufic-ar:
(intr.) to suffice, be sufficient (ad, por); -as: (impers.) it is sufficient; that is enough; that will do; -o, -ajo: sufficing; sufficiency, adequacy, competency; -anta: sufficient (cf. sat); -ante: sufficiently. Ex.: Cent franki suficos a me. Suficajo de frumento.Kapaceso suficanta. Esar suficante klara. To suficas a me, equivalas: me konsideras, aceptas to kom suficanta. V. exp: vid. saciar, sat. — EFIS.

sufix-o:
(gram.) suffix; -igar: to suffix: annex at the end of a word. — DEFIRS

sufl-ar: (intr.) to blow (wind, etc.); (tr.) to blow: force wind or breathe upon; (theat.) to prompt (a speaker); (chess, checkers) to huff; -(ad)o: blow(ing), puffing, breath, breathing (cf. respiro, anhelo); -eto, -ego, -ajo: (the air) puff, gust, blast, whiff; forjo-sufl-ilo: blacksmith’s bellows. Ex.: La vento suflas. Suflar (ad) sua fingri. Suflar fairo, vitro, orgeno. Suflar aktoro. Suflar piono. Ne esis mem vento-sufleto. Extingar buijio per sufl(et)o di la respirajo. — DFI

sufle-o: souflée.

sufok-ar: (tr., intr.) to suffocate, stifle, smother, choke; (fig.) to check, subdue (cf. strangular); -anta, -iva: suffocating, stifling. Ex.: La nutristino sufokas la dormanta infanto. Sufokar la karbonfairo. Sufokar sua singluti. Me sufokis pro irocego, pro la varmegeso. Astmo donas la sento di sufoko. Aero sufokanta. V. exp.: vid. asfixiar. — EFIS

sufr-ar: (tr., intr.) to suffer (from), be afflicted with (cf. dolorar, subisar, tolerar); il sufras en la hepato: his liver is out of order. Ex.: Sufrar (de, pro) la hungro, la dursto, la doloro, lo morto. Persono infirma e sufranta. — EFIS

sufragan-a, -o: suffragan (bishop). — DEFIRS

sufraji-o: (R.C. relig.) suffrage: a short prayer.

sufuzion-o: (med.) suffusion: extravasation of some humour.

sug-ar: (tr.) to suck (candy, etc., ulo de ulo); -anta: sucking; (zool.) suctorial; -ilo: sucker (as of an insect); mam-sugar: to suckle (cf. alaktar). Ex.: Sugar la suko de oranjo. V. exp.: On povas aspirar, ne nur aero od altra gaso, ma anke liquido. Do on povas e devas dicar, ke pumpilo aspiras, e distingar teknikale la pumpili aspirante e presanta. (Pumpilo aspiras unesme l’aero, e per la sama procedo, kande ol esas amorcita, ol duras aspirar l’aquo. Sugar expresas ago di la boko, labii, lango, qua ne implikas necese aspiro. Exemple, on sugas bonbono en la boko; on nule aspiras ol; V-156.

sugest-ar: (tr.) to suggest, intimate (ulo ad ulu); -etar: to hint; -(ad)o: suggestion; -ajo: what is suggested, suggestion, intimation; -anta, -iva: suggestive. Ex.: To sugestis ideo a me. Sugesto hipnotala. Sugestiva penso. Lu mem ne sugestetis la ago a me. — DEFIS

suk-o: juice: sap (of vegetables) the water (of fruit); -oza: juicy; -o stomak-ala: gastric juice. Ex.: La suko di oranjo. — FIR

sukomb-ar: (intr.) to succumb (ad), to yield, get worsted. Ex.: Sukombar a tento, a doloro, sub la pezajo. — EFIS

su-kontre-dicanta: self-contradictory (cf. inter-kontre-dic-anta).

sukr-o: sugar; -ala: relating to s.; -atra: s.-like; -oza: sugary: naturally sweet; -iz-ita: sugered: covered with s.; sweetened; -izar: to s.; put s. in or on; to sweeten; -ajo: a sweet(meat); -aj-erio: confectioner’s shop; -if-isto: s. maker; -if-erio: s.-works, s. refinery; -o-lumpo, -o-bloko: s. loaf; -o-pulvero: powdered, ground s.; -o-kano: s. cane. — DEFIRS

sukub-o: succubus. — DEFS

sukus-ar: (tr.) to cause violent vibrations in, to shake, shake off, jerk, jog, jostle, jolt (cf. agitar, ocilar, shancel-igar, tremar); -ope: by shakes, jerks. Ex.: Sukusar arboro, tablo, sua kapo. Sukusado la polvo de la vesto. Sukusado di veturo sur voyo aspera. — FI

sul-o: soil (cf. tero, tereno); sub- -o: subsoil. Def.: La supra strato di la tero, konsiderata pri lua produktive qualesi; Ex.: sulo fertila, sterila, e.c. — EFIS

sulf-o: sulphur, brimstone; -oza, -atra: sulphurous; -o-pulvero: flowers of s.; -izar, -agar: to sulphurize; -eyo, -jac-eyo, min-eyo: s. mine; -at-acido: sulphuric acid (H2SO­­­4); -ido: sulphuret; -ito: sulphite; -ito-acido: sulphurous acid (H2SO3). — EFIS

sulk-o: (also fig.) furrow (as made by plow); ship’s track; -izar: to furrow; roto- -o: wheel rut. — IS

sultan-(ul)o: sultan; -ino: sultana. — DEFIRS

sultanen-o: (2001) sultana (dried white seedless grape).

sum-o: (math.) sum, amount, total (cf. toto, agreg-ajo); -o totala: s. total; -e: (fig.) finally, on the whole, after all; -igar: to sum up, cast up, totalize; -igo: summing up. Def.: Rezultajo di la adiciono di plura nombri o quanti. Ex.: La sumo di la unaji. Sumigar du nombri. — DEFIRS

sumak-o: (bot.) sumac (-tree) (genus: Rhus). — DEFIRS

sumari-a: (adj.) summary. Def.: Dic-esas pri agi facita rapide, sen tempo-perdo o neutila formulaji. V-623. Ex.: Sumaria judiko.

sumn-ar: (tr.) to summon, call authoritatively upon; -o: summons, Def.: Demandar impereme o postular segun yuro e legala formi; III-417. Ex.: Sumnar debanto pagar. Sumnar fortreso kapitulacar. — EF

sun-o:
sun; (fig.) sunlight; -ala: solar; -oza: sunny; -frapo: sunstroke; -floro: (bot.) sunflower (genus: Helianthus); -horlojo: sun-dial; para- -o: parasol; -brul-ita: sunburned. — DE

sundi-o: Sunday (cf. sabato); palmo- -o: Palm Sunday. — DE

su-ocid-ar: (tr.) to commit suicide; -o: suicide; -into: a suicide.

suol-o: sole (of boots, shoes) (cf. plando); a sort of horn under a horse’s hoof; -o ledra: leather sole; -izar: to sole; ri- -izar: to resole. — DeIS

sup-o: soup; porridge; -uyo: s. holder, s. tureen; legum- o: vegetable s.; lakto- -o: milk porridge. — DEFIRS

supe-ar: (intr.) to sup, take a (midnight) supper; (noktomezala) -o: (midnight) supper; -o santa: Holy Supper (cf. dejunar, dinear). Def.: La repasto quan on facas cirkum o pos noktomezo ti qui vigilas, pos teatro, balo, festo, e.c.; V-278; kp. VI-162. Ex.: Supear delikate (od, supeetar) pos l’opero. — DEF

super: (prep., elevation) over, above (but not in contact with; cf. sur); (of degree) over, more than, greater than, superior to; -e: over, above (that); -a: higher, upper (cf. superiora); ucelo flugis super la domo: a bird flew over the house; super la suprajo: over the top; dek-e-kin gradi super zero: fifteen degrees above freezing point; il stacis supere: he stood above; -e dic-ita: aforesaid; -e nom-ita: above named; -a etaji: upper floors, stories above (cf. supra etajo); -a klaso: upper class; -a genio: superior genius; super-esar: to be over, overtop, surpass, have a superiority; -eso: highness, superiority (cf. superioreso); ica vino superesas ta: this wine is superior to (better than) that; la monto superesas (od, dominacas) la urbo: the mountain is above the city; supereso di kurajo: superiority of courage. V. exp.: vid. alta. Ant.: sub. — EFIS

super-aucion-ar: (tr.) to outbid, bid higher than.

super-avanc-ar: (tr.) to advance over; to overhang (cf. saliar, super-pendar). Ex.: La muro super-avancas.

superb-a: conceited, supercilious (cf. arog-anta); -eso: conceitedness: excessive self-esteem; -igar: to make (ulu) c., to puff up; -esar, -eskar: to be, become c. V. exp.: Superbeso produktas ecesiva su-estimo; vanitateso produktas deziro por l’aplaudo di altri; prezunto esas sufidego pri la imaginita posedo di ulo quon on fakte ne posedas; kp. fiera. Ant.: humila. — FIS

super-charj-ar: (tr., also fig.) to overload, overburden. Ex.: Supercharjar kavalo, veturo, sua stomako, sua employati.

superfetacion-o: (physiol.) superfetation. — DEFIS

superflu-a: superfluous; superogatory; -eso: (quality) superfluousness; -ajo: (object) superfluity; overplus, (work of) superogation. Def.: Qua esas troa. Ex.: Ornivi, regreti superflua. Superflueso de vorti. Esas superfluaji en ta verko. — EFIS

super-flu-ar: (intr.) to overflow; -o: overflowing; -ant-ajo: the overflow, waste; -o-tubo: waste pipe.

super-hom-a: superhuman; -(ul)o: superman.

superior-a: (social, hierarchical) superior; -(ul)o: superior; -eso: superiority. Ex.: La arki-episkopo esas la superioro di (od esas superiora ad) la episkopo, e do havas superioreso. V. exp.: vid. alta. Ant.: inferiora. — DEFIS

super-ir-ar: (tr.) to go over, to rise above; (fig.) to surpass; -ar su: to surpass, outdo oneself. Ex.: Superirar la monto. Ca lernanto superiras (od, superesas) omna kunlernanti. Me superiris mea tasko.

superlativ-a: superlative (degree, etc.); -o: (gram.) a superlative (cf. extrema). — DEFIS

super-natur-a: supernatural; -ajo: s. event.

super-nombr-a: supernumerary (cf. supernumerario). Ex.: Havar fingro supernombra.

supernov-o: (2001) supernova. — DEFIRS

supernumerari-o: a supernumerary; -eso: s. service or time; state of being a s. Def.: Employato quan on admisas exter rango, por vartar ordinara employo; IV-584. — DEFIS

super-pas-ar: (tr.) to rise above, surmount.

super-pend-ar: (tr.) to hang over. Ex.: La roko superpendas la ravino.

super-poz-ar: to superpoze: to lay upon (ulo ad, sur ulo).

super-preco: higher price; (in selling) overcharge.

super-sens-a: supersensible.

super-sign-o: diacritic(al) mark; written or printed sign of accent (cf. acento); -izar: to mark with, add diacritics.

superstic-o: superstition; -oza, -oz-(ul)o: superstitious (person). — EFIS

super-tax-ar: (tr.) to overtax (cf. pluse-taxar).

super-varm-igar: to overheat.

super-vid-o: (rapid) survey, view; me havis nur supervido di la loko, di la afero: I had but a summary view of the place, but a faint knowledge of the matter.

supin-o: (gram.) supine: verbal noun, similar to the English verbals ending in -ing. — DEFIS

suplant-ar: (tr.) to supplant (a rival, etc.). V. exp.: B supleas A kande lu okupas la loko (ofico, funciono, rolo) di A nur provizore, ne kun la sama yuri o grado. B suplantas A kande lu privacas A de lua loko por remplasar lu permanante; kp. Substitucar. — EFIS

suple-ar: (tr.) to supply: make up, make good (the defficiency), furnish (what is wanted); to take the place of, the duty of (temporarily); -anto: substitute, assistant, deputy. Ex.: Lua laborego supleas (E. makes up for) (manko di) talento. Cadie Sro. X. supleos vu. V. exp.: vid. suplantar. — EFIS

suplement-o: (also math.) supplement; -a, -ala: supplementary, additional, extra; -e: in addition, by way of s.; -o di angulo: s. of an angle: the quantity by which an arc or an angle falls short of 180º. Ex.: Suplemento di (ad) libro. Suplementala pago, preco, kusto. — DEFIS

suplik-ar: (tr.) to supplicate, humbly beseech, entreat, beg (ulu pri, por ulo). Def.: Pregar ulu kun insistemeso e submiseso. V. exp.: vid. implorar. — EFIS

suport-ar: (tr., lit. and fig.) to support: bear the weight of (cf. sustenar, tolerar); -ilo: a support, prop; -anto: (person) supporter, upholder. Ex.: La pilastri qui suportas la vulto esas suportili. Suportar la spensi di familio. Suportar (E. bear) la koldeso, la doloro. Esar sen suporto, sen helpo, sen amiki. Suportanti di la guvernerio. V. exp.: Suportar esas portar kozo sen movo, tale ke ol ne falez; ma portar uzesas generale kun movo. Metafore, suportar uzesas en senco vicina di tolerar; IV-162 — EFIS

supoz-ar: (tr.) to suppose, assume (ulo, pri ulo); -o: (act) supposition; -ajo: supposition, assumption; -ebla: supposable; -ite ke: on the supposition that; -ez ke: let us suppose that; en omna -o: however it may be. Def.: Admisar kom hipotezo; imaginar ulo kontre la vereso. Ex.: Supozar ulo neposibla. To esas riskema supozajo. — EFIS

supozitori-o: (med.) suppository. — DEFIS

supr-e: on top, overhead, above, aloft, on high; upwards, upstairs (cf. supere); -a: top, of or relating to what is highest up in space or degree; -ajo: highest part, top (cf. somito); il esas ibe supre: he is up there; irar ad-supre: to go to the top, to go up; supra etajo: top or highest floor; -(eg)a povo, autoritato: supreme power, authority; la supro (geometrical sense, or, suprajo: material part) di la monto: the top of the mountain. V. exp.: vid. alta. Ant.: infre. — L

supres-ar: (tr.) to suppress, do away with; -o: (act) suppression; -ajo: what is suppressed. Def.: Impedar existar o (jurnali, e.c.) aparar. Ex.: Supresar sedicio, libro, imposto. Supreso di pruvo di krimino. V. exp.: vid. abolisar. — EFIS

sur: (prep.) on, upon: above and in contact with the upper part of something; resting on the top of (cf. super, an); (arith.) divided by; -a: upper (cf. supera); ad-sur: onto (with motion); sur la tablo: on the table; navo sur la maro: ship on the sea; sur la rivero, la strado: on the river (itself) on the street (itself; N.B. not on the bank of the river or the side of the street, an); saltar ad sur la lito: to jump onto the bed; sura etajo: the floor (just) above; non sur tri facas tri: 9:3 = 3. Def.: Plu alta kam ula objekto e kontaktanta; III-228. V. exp.: vid. alta. Ant.: sub. — FIS

sur-o: calf (of the leg). — L

surd-a: deaf; -(ul)o: a d. person; -eso: deafness; -igar: to deafen (ulu); (fig.) stun (with noise); -eskar: to become d.; -a-mut-a, -(ul)o: deaf and dumb (person); simular surdo: to make-believe to be d., to turn a d. ear to; -ega, stone surda: stone-deaf, deaf as a post. — EFIS

sur-dento: tooth grown over another, projecting tooth.

sureal-a: (2001) surreal. — DEFIRS

surfac-o: surface, outside; (fig.) appearance (cf. areo); -ala: superficial: relating to the s.; (fig.) specious (plan, judgement, reasoning; cf. ne-profunda, ne-serioza); -ale judikar: to judge superficially, by appearance; suface flotacar: to float upon the s. Def.: La suprajo, la exterajo di ula korpo. Ex.: La surfaco di la tero. Vunduro surfacala. — EFIS

surjet-o:
(of seams) whip-stitch, over-cast(ing). — FI

sur-kalz-o: over-stocking, -hose.

sur-kresk-ajo: outgrowth, excrescence, proturberance.

surkrut-o: sauerkraut. Def.: Kaulo fermentacinta; II-711.

sur-manik-o: over-sleeve.

surmen-ar: (tr.) to overdrive, drive beyond one’s strength, overtax, overstrain (super-charjar, fatigar). Ex.: Surmenar kavalo. Surmenar sua forteso per laborado, sua mento per studiado. — F

surmulet-o: (ichth.) surmullet, red mullet (Mullus Surmuletus). — DEF

sur-nom-o: surname, family name; -acho: nickname, sobriquet; -izar: to surname. Ex.: Il surnomizis Simon kom Peter, t.e. kom Simon Peter.

surogat-o: (of things) substitute: that which is put in place of another thing; (med.) succedaneum; -a: substitute. V. exp.: vid. substituto. — DeIR

surplis-o: (priest’s) surplice. — EFS

sur-poz-ar: (tr.) to put (ulo) on (ulo).

supriz-ar: (tr.) to surprise, take by s., take unawares, to come or fall upon suddenly and unexpectedly, overtake suddenly (cf. astonar, kaptacar); -o, -eso: (act, state) surprisal, surprise; unawareness; -e: by s.; -anta: surprising. Ex.: Surprizar furtero, la enemiko. Mi-voye la pluvo surprizis ni. Li timas surpriz-atako da la enemiko. Donar surpriz-buxo a la puero. — EFIS

sur-ren-a: (anat.) suprarenal.

sur-shu-o: overshoe.

sur-skrib-o, -uro: superscription, inscription.

surtut-o: (long) overcoat, greatcoat, surtout. — EFIS

survey-ar: to keep an eye on, superintend, look after, watch over, inspect; -(ad)o: supervision, superintendence, oversight, surveillance; -anta, -ema: superintending, watchful, vigilant; -anto, -ero, -isto: inspector, overseer, superintendent. Def.: Sorgar afero, tasko, ulo, kun partikulareso e autoritato. Ex.: Generalo devas surveyar omno. Surveyar la afero e la laboristi en fabrikerio. Surveyar la konduto di ulu. Surveyo di lernanti o karcerani. — EFI

sus!: (interj.) to arms! attack!

suskript-ar: (tr., intr.) to subscribe: contribute a definite sum to an undertaking (cf. signatar, subskribar); -o: subscription: act of contributing (N.B. not to a newspaper, cf. abono); the consent in writing; -ajo: subscription: amount contributed. Ex.: Me suskriptas cent franki kom yarala kontributo ad ca entraprezo. Me abonas ta revuo ed anke suskriptas pekunio por la mantenokaso. — DEFIS

suspekt-ar: (tr.) to suspect: hold in suspicion, to distrust; doubt the hono(u)r, fidelity or sincerity of; to imagine guilty (cf. des-fidar, konjektar); -o: suspicion; -eskar: to grow suspicious; igar ulu suspekt-inda, suspekt-igar ulu: to cause (ulu) to be suspected, to cast suspicion on (ulu); -ema: (tendency) suspicious, mistrustful; -ebla, -inda: suspicious; -indo: a suspect. Ex.: Suspektar ulu pri krimino, pri herezio. Ta suspekto esas male fondita. Lu mem suspektas sua amiki. — EFIS

suspend-ar: (tr., phys. sense) to suspend, hang up: fix (ulo) on high and leave hanging (cf. pendar, akrochar); -o, -eso: suspending, suspension; -anta: hanging; (med. etc.) suspensory; ponto -ita: suspension bridge. Ex.: Suspendar (od, pend-igar) lampo de la plafono. Pulvero suspendita en liquido. — DEFIS

suspens-ar: (tr.) to suspend (functionaries, judgement, privileges, work) (cf. suspendar, halt-igar, interruptar). Def.: Revokar dum tempo; VI-163.

suspension-o: (2001) suspension (of a vehicle, etc.). — EFIS

suspensor-o: (biol.). suspensor.

suspensori-o: (surg.) suspensory (bandage). — DEFIS

susten-ar: (tr., phys. and fig.) to sustain, bear, uphold; prevent from falling (cf. sub-tenar, suportar, mantenar, helpar, defensar); -ilo: stay, prop; -o-muro: retaining wall; -o-stango: sustaining rod, prop. Ex.: La fundamento sustenas la edifico. Sustenar sua reputo, entraprezo. — EFIS

sustracion-ar: (tr., arith.) to subtract, deduct (ulo, de ulo). Ant.: adicionar. — DEFIS

sustrakt-ar: (tr.) to abstract, appropriate (fraude); purloin, steal, embezzle (money, etc.). Def.: Deprenar o furtar ulo per habileso o per fraudo. — FIS

susur-ar: (tr., intr.) to whisper, murmur or mutter (words); (fig.) to whisper, sough (of the wind); -(ad)o: whisper(ing), speaking under the breath; -anta, -ema; -anto, -emo: whisper-ing, -er. Def.: Parolar nelaute; (fig.) facar duranta nelauta bruiso, ex, «la vento susuras en l’arbori;» IV-600. — FI

sut-ar: (tr.) to sew, stitch; -(ad)o, -uro: sewing; seam; (surg.) suture; -o-mashino: sewing machine; -ist-ino: seamstress; -o-korbo: sewing-basket. V. exp.: vid. stebar. — EFI

sutan-o: (R.C.) soutane, cassock. — DEFIS

su-ten-o: carriage (of the body).

suvenir-o: (2001) souvenir. — EF

suveren-a, -(ul)o: sovereign (cf. supr-ega); -eso: sovereignty. Ex.: Autoritato suverena. En demokratio, la populo havas la suvereneso. — DEFIS

suzeren-a, -(ul)o: suzerain, lord paramount. — DEFR

swabr-o: (nav.) swab; -agar: (tr., intr.) to swab (the deck); kauchuka -o: squeegee. — DeR

swich-ar*: (tr.) (elec.) to switch (off, on); ek- -ar*: to switch off; en- -ar*: to switch on; -ilo*: a switch. — E

swob-o*: swab. — E